From CellBiology

Lab Attendance

week 1 No Lab

week 2 --z3253348 10:43, 10 March 2011 (EST)

week 3 --z3253348 09:01, 17 March 2011 (EST)

week 4 --z3253348 08:54, 24 March 2011 (EST)

week 5 --z3253348 08:47, 31 March 2011 (EST)

week 6 --z3253348 09:07, 7 April 2011 (EST)

week 7 --z3253348 08:54, 14 April 2011 (EST)

week 8 --z3253348 09:09, 21 April 2011 (EST)

week 9 --z3253348 09:03, 5 May 2011 (EST)

week 10 --z3253348 09:34, 12 May 2011 (EST)

week 11 --z3253348 08:59, 19 May 2011 (EST)

week 12 --z3253348 08:51, 26 May 2011 (EST)

week 13 --z3253348 09:09, 2 June 2011 (EST)

Individual Assessments

Lab 1

1. What are the key cell biology journals?

The Journal of Cell Biology


Public Library of Science

Nature Cell Biology

BMC Cell Biology

2. Which journals allow reuse of their published content?

Public Library of Science

The Journal of Cell Biology

BMC Cell Biology

The articles must be properly cited

Lab 2

1. Which chromosomes contribute to the nucleolus?

The nucleolus, located within the nucleus is an important organelle as it is involved in ribosomal RNA transcription and is the site for ribosome assembly. It is formed around nucleolar organisers which involve repeated rRNA genes.In humans, chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22 are found which contain rRNA genes contributing to the nucleolus and it's function. Nucleolus Link

2.Identify and add a link to your page of a recent cell biology article using confocal microscopy from the Pubmed database.

An Atlas for Schistosoma mansoni Organs and Life-Cycle Stages Using Cell Type-Specific Markers and Confocal Microscopy

Lab 3

1. Find the SDS information for chloroform and identify the hazards associated with this chemical

MSDS Chloroform

Acute Health Effects:

  • Irritant to skin, eyes and lungs
  • Harmful if ingested or inhaled

Chronic Health Effects:

  • Carcinogenic effects
  • Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells.
  • Repeated exposure can cause organ damage. Toxic to kidneys, liver and heart.

2. You will need to upload an image and add it to your page, with the reference and copyright information with the image.

p38 MAPK localises to cilia in S. mansoni miracidia

p38 MAPK localises to cilia in S. mansoni miracidia.[1]

Image Reference

  1. Margarida Ressurreição, David Rollinson, Aidan M Emery, Anthony J Walker A role for p38 MAPK in the regulation of ciliary motion in a eukaryote. BMC Cell Biol.: 2011, 12;6 PubMed 21269498

Lab 4

1. Identify a commercial supplier of an antibody that relates to your group project topic.

Labome – The World of Laboratories provides information from antibody suppliers.[1]

Labome provides information on GJB6 Antibody (N-term) - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) and Abgent is a supplier of this antibody [2] This antibody which is found in rabbits reacts with humans and its main use is in immunohistochemistry.

2. In mitochondria, where is the gene located that encode Cytochrome C and what keeps this protein trapped within the mitochondria? (Hint - Watch Part 2: Factors Involved in the Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis

The CYCS gene encodes for Cytocrome C and is located on chromosome 7. This protein is located on the inner mitochondrial membrane and plays a key role in the electron transport chain. Cytocrome C is maintained within the mitochondria due to the outer membrane and through its attachment to the membrane assisted by cardiolipin. Apotosis occurs when it is released from the membrane due to its dissociation from cardiolipin, followed by the outer mitochondrial membrane becoming more permeable. [3]

Lab 5

Knockout Cell Work Sheet

Lab 6

Phenotype Graph A.PNG

A = Fan

B = Broken fan

C = Stumped

D = Pronged

E = Stringed

F = Pygnotic

1. What are the changes in phenotype that you observed between Group A and Group B in your table?

Phenotype Fan - Tm4 group reduced by about 11%

Phenotype Broken Fan - Tm4 group is reduced by about 30%

Phenotype Stumped - Tm4 group express an increase of about 17%

Phenotype Pronged - Tm4 group show 26% increase

Phentype Stringed - Tm4 show only slight increase of about 3%

Phenotype pygontic - Tm4 only show very slight decrease about 1%

Most common phenotype for Tm4 was stumped and pronged and most common phenotype for the control was fan and broken fan

2. What are the changes in phenotype that you observed between Group A and Group B in table 2?

Phenotype A - Tm4

-increased branching thus more connections formed

-more rounded cell body

-shorter and wider

-stringed and pronged phenotpyes

Phenotype B - Control

-decreased branching thus decreased connections

-flatter cell body

-thinner and longer

-stringed phenotype

3. How does Tm4 mediate these changes?

Tropomyosins are a type of actin binding protein and are found in both muscle and non muscle cells. In non muscle cells many tropomyosin isoforms are present, where they play an important role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and functional characteristics of the actin filaments.[4] The diagrams studied this week examine the Tm4 isoform. Tm4 is expressed embryonically and when neurons were cultured Tm4 was present in growth cones as well as in areas where neurite growth occured. Thus TM-4 can be seen to play a vital role in neurite development and synaptic plasticity.[5] This is reflected in our results where Group A, the Tm4 group was found have an increased number of neurites, increased branching and more overlapping cells. This allows more connections to be formed assisting interaction and development. In contrast group B, the control group had fewer interactions seen with less branching and less overlapping of neurites. These results suggest, Tm4 is responsible for these phenotypic changes increasing interactions between cells.

Lab 9

1. Identify from one of the cell line repositories: a neural cell line and a muscle cell line.

ATCC are a supplier of cell lines and hybridomas.

Neural cell line: Cortical Neuron

Muscle cell line: Muscle Myoblast

2. Identify the species and growth conditions for these cell lines.

Cortical Neuron

Organism: Homo-sapiens(humans)

Medium: ATCC-formulated Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium to make the complete growth medium fetal bovine serum to a final concentration of 10% is added.

Temperature: 37.0°C

pH: The growth medium must be adjusted to pH 7.35 prior to filtration

Muscle Myoblast

Organism: Mus musculus(mouse)

Medium:ATCC-formulated Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, to make the complete growth medium fetal bovine serum to a final concentration of 10% is added.


Protocol: Myoblastic population in the culture will become deplited if cultures become confluent .

Peer Review

Group 1: Synaptic Junction

•Introduction should introduce what will be discussed on the rest of the page more clearly

•The history looks good but is there any current research you could add?

•The glossary needs to be added to and needs to be in alphabetical order

•The disease section is very long perhaps simplifying it and relating them more to your junction

•The table of neurotransmitters is excellent, try something like this for diseases so its easier to read and understand

•Use subheadings for types of junctions the text seems all integrated

•More research is needed on function of your junction

•Check grammar and spelling

•Remember to reference the project before the due date

•Drawings are great I think the text needs to simplified and integration of pictures will help readers understand the topic better

Group 3: Tight junction

•Introduction needs to focus on your own junction more

•History is well done but anything beyond 2005?

•Glossary needs work –to short

•The disease section is very good but a long read could there be a way to integrate more pictures to help visualise the diseases?

•Similarly for function great information but picture integration will help readers understand better- it is a lot of text.

•Structure is well researched

•Remember to fix all referencing and check spelling before the due date

Group 4: Desmosomes

•Introduction needs to be expanded and pictures added otherwise readers are overwhelmed with text.

•Good history – anything beyond 2004?

•A glossary needs to be added – difficult words need to be explained

•Structure – the text order needs to be modified and fix subheading to make it more clear

•More current research is needed

•Perhaps adding a table to the page to break up the text is a good idea either for regulation or diseases

•Good mention of hemi-desmosomes and knockout genes –

•More research could be added as well a tables and more pictures to balance the page

•Remember to fix all spelling mistakes and referencing before due date

Group 5: Adherens Junction

•Introduction is to short – needs to explain the project page more

•History also very short readers needs more of a background

•Add a picture to the top of the page to catch readers attention

•Hand drawn diagram is very good and fits nicely with structure

•Good use of table to break up the text

•Function needs at least 1 picture to balance the text

•Maybe something on future studies could be added

•Need to add to glossary to complete it

Group 6: Neuromuscular junction

•Good introduction

•History anything beyond 2000?

•Perhaps remove "historic researchers in NMJ" its already under history subheading

•Video is really great idea

•For mechanism of action section can you maybe move a picture to the other left side to break up the text? It happens again latter down the page just something to think about before the final due date.

•Great use of tables and images helps to break up the text.

•Great integration of the microscopy section

•Interesting embryology research

•Clever input of potential future research with links

Work Area

Lab 1

Here is some bold text

Here is some italic text

Internal Link: First Lab

External Link: Journal of Cell Biology

Lab 2

Lab Three


Reference List

  4. Peter Gunning, Geraldine O'Neill, Edna Hardeman Tropomyosin-based regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in time and space. Physiol. Rev.: 2008, 88(1);1-35 PubMed 18195081
  5. L Had, C Faivre-Sarrailh, C Legrand, J Méry, J Brugidou, A Rabié Tropomyosin isoforms in rat neurons: the different developmental profiles and distributions of TM-4 and TMBr-3 are consistent with different functions. J. Cell. Sci.: 1994, 107 ( Pt 10);2961-73 PubMed 7876361
  6. Clifford P Brangwynne, Timothy J Mitchison, Anthony A Hyman Active liquid-like behavior of nucleoli determines their size and shape in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(11);4334-9 PubMed 21368180