From CellBiology

Lab Attendance

--Sally Clarke 10:45, 10 March 2011 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 09:02, 17 March 2011 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 09:13, 24 March 2011 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 09:05, 31 March 2011 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 09:12, 7 April 2011 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 10:41, 14 April 2011 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 08:55, 21 April 2011 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 10:07, 12 May 2011 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 09:36, 26 May 2011 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 09:11, 2 June 2011 (EST)

Peer Reviews


  • Introduction: More info about what you are going to talk about
  • History: Good and to the point though is there something more recent(Only some points have full stops others do)
  • What is a Synaptic Junction:The pictures need likes to the site they came from and maybe extend the caption that says 'Em Synapse' to at least capital EM as it took me a while to understand what you were saying.
  • Types of Synaptic Junctions: Nice comparative table and images
  • Synaptic Integration and modulation: Well researched
  • Neurotransmitters: Excellent Table
  • Disease: The actual headings of the diseases, Parkinson and Myasthenia Gravis, gets lost in the writing which makes it confusing when reading. Also maybe a bit too much pathological and epidemiology on the topic, Maybe make this into a paragraph about the disease rather than so many subheadings.
  • Current and Future Research: Maybe add some links in to current research being done.
  • Gallery: Make sure ALL the images on the page are in it.
  • Glossary: You just need to Alphabetise this.


  • All images need a link to where they came from in them. Also maybe make some images thumbnails as they don't need to be as big (ie. Connexins image, hexagonal gap junctions)
  • Introduction: Nice introduction
  • History: Very thorough though images should be used to break up text rather than thrown in at bottom of section.
  • Structure: The info here is a little too concise, don't be afraid to explain what you are talking about. ie. maybe explain what passes through the junction and why.
  • Functional Role of Gap junctions: Well researched and good use of bold for main points.
  • Location: Good inclusion of heading though should probably go before or after Structure.
  • Comparison with other junctions: Nice Table - maybe link the titles to the other topic pages that they are talking about
  • Disease associated with Gap Junctions: Good clear format of text and diseases though the images should go AROUND the text not just under it. Too much white!
  • Current: GREAT.
  • Glossary: You just need to Alphabetise this and maybe add some more.


  • Introduction: Check spelling and break up text to make it easier to read. Images also need copyright info and a link to the website they came from.
  • History: Great
  • Structure: Images also need copyright info and a link to the website they came from. This section really should include Molecular structure components....
  • Molecular Structure Components: This should be under structure and not its own heading I think, by making it bold it will do the trick. Similar to the Tight Junction Function subheading, that really works well.
  • Tight Junction Functions: Great content, Maybe move the pictures around a little so it's not just text one one side, images on the other.
  • Examples of TJ in the Body: Great idea with this section and well done
  • Classification of Epithelial using TJ's: Watch your grammar here ie. “leaky” epithelia on the should have a Capital as is the start of a sentence.
  • TJ Assembly and regulation: Good topic
  • Disease: Very comprehensive Table, don't need the '-' at the end of exhaustive leading into the table. Also images should go in the table if they can it seems like they are just chucked in on the side. Images also need copyright info and a link to the website they came from.
  • Glossary: A few more terms, like JAMs should go in here.


  • Intro: Too short and needs overview of what is occurring on the page. Maybe add an image as well.
  • History: More images maybe and put the image to the right side maybe, wrapped by text, Does that make sense? Well written.
  • Structure: Great that you got permission but it doesn't need to be included at the top on the page. Maybe make a reference to it when you discuss the paper.
  • Function: Heading a little confusing i would consider revising grammar for these ie: 'Desmodome as (a) cellular adhesion junction' - needs the a included at least. Also you launch straight into this section so maybe add a little preamble as to allow the reader to follow your thoughts rather than jumping from topic to topic. The images here need to have the website added into their image page and the last image falls bellow this section.
  • Hemidesmosomes: the link here needs to be formatted with the title of the page.
  • Regulation: Images should really move to be wrapped on a side so as not to impede flow and they need copyright info and a link to the location they came from.
  • Disease: Images here need captions and to be wrapped in the text rather than creating lots of extra white space.
  • Current Research: Too short and needs more articles and research being done.
  • Images and video: Add ALL the images from the page into here otherwise it is a bit of a waste of space. Also format the link properly!
  • No glossary???


  • You have put a lot of research into this assignment guys so firstly, well done.
  • The first NMJ heading is a little unnecessary
  • Introduction: Great
  • History: Anything more since 2000? Also you don't need the "historic researchers in NMJ" title - it's implied by the subtitle.
  • Mechanism of Action: Video is really great. There is a LOT of info here... is it necessary to go into so much detail about the motoneurons etc?
  • Important Structural Component: The 'Important structural components of NMJ' heading should go next to table of contents it doesn't need so many titles. Great use of images though you need to include a link to their location from where they were found in the image's page.
  • Light microscopy and EM pictures of NMJ: this section feels like it is just chucked into here. I don't think it belongs here but maybe with current research under research methods. It has great images though.
  • Cellular organisation of skeletal muscle: Really well researched but i question the validity of the information here. I understand NMJ action Skeletal muscles but I think you may have gone off on a tangent and this information isn't very relevant to the topic at hand.
  • Embryonic Development of NMJ: The idea of this topic is great. Awesome image though the article you explain goes into a lot more detail than necessary. I think a shorter, more succinct, summary would work just as well. Also you don't need as many images here, a caption would work better than more text and the images need copyright info and a link to the location that they came from.
  • Common NMJ disorders: Don't need a title on top of the table the subheading explains it. Great images and table.
  • Current Research: I got confused with the first sentence and what it was talking about. Was it in reference to the 2009 article bellow it??? Consider formatting this a little more clearly so it flows and doesn't just launch into topics. There may be a few too many images here... Maybe just one per article? Also add captions to the images so we know what they are just buy looking at them.
  • Future Research: Really good.
  • Glossary: Good.

Individual Assessments

Lab 1 - Introduction

1. What are the key cell biology journals?

  • JCB
  • Nature Cell biology
  • Cell
  • BMC Cell Biology
  • Trends in Cell Biology

2. Which of these Journals allow reuse of their published content?

  • PLos - Freely available online for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use (with attribution)any way
  • JCB - Six months after publication, with non-exclusive right to copy, distribute, or display the Work under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share
  • BCM Cell Biology - Unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium is permitted, provided the article is properly cited

Lab 2 - Microscopy Methods

1. Which chromosomes contribute to the nucleolus?

The Nucleolus contains nucleolar organizers which are parts of chromosomes with the genes for ribosome synthesis on them. Copious amounts of RNA and proteins can be found in the nucleolus as well. In humans, Chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, 22 can be found.

2. Identify and add a link to your page of a recent cell biology article using confocal microscopy.

--Mark Hill 07:52, 24 March 2011 (EST) Do you need help with this question? Sorry I deleted it!!!

MKS and NPHP modules cooperate to establish basal body/transition zone membrane associations and ciliary gate function during ciliogenesis

Work Area

Lab 3 - Preparation/Fixation

1. Find the SDS information for chloroform and identify the hazards associated with this chemical.


Inhalation: Acts as a relatively potent aesthetic. Irritates respiratory tract and causes central nervous system effects, including headache, drowsiness, and dizziness. Exposure to higher concentrations may result in unconsciousness and even death. May cause liver injury and blood disorders. Prolonged exposure may lead to death due to irregular heartbeat and kidney and liver disorders.

Ingestion: Causes severe burning in mouth and throat, pain in the chest and vomiting. Large quantities may cause symptoms similar to inhalation.

Skin Contact: Causes skin irritation resulting in redness and pain. Removes natural oils. May be absorbed through skin.

Eye Contact: Vapours causes pain and irritation to eyes. Splashes may cause severe irritation and possible eye damage.

Chronic Exposure: Prolonged or repeated exposure to vapours may cause damage to the nervous system, the heart and the liver and kidneys. Contact with liquid has defatting effect and may cause chronic irritation of skin with cracking and drying, and corresponding dermatitis. Chloroform is a suspected human carcinogen. Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems, or impaired liver, kidney or respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.

2. You will need to upload an image and add it to your page, with the reference and copyright information with the image.


Redistribution of the Actin Cytoskeleton in RCASBP-Bcl-xL-Infected Tumor Cell[1]


  1. Yi-Chieh Nancy Du, Brian C Lewis, Douglas Hanahan, Harold Varmus Assessing tumor progression factors by somatic gene transfer into a mouse model: Bcl-xL promotes islet tumor cell invasion. PLoS Biol.: 2007, 5(10);e276 PubMed 17941720

Lab 4 - Immunochemistry

1. Identify a commercial supplier of an antibody that relates to your group project topic.

Anti-A-CAM antibodies: Studies suggest that A-CAM participates in intercellular adhesion in Adherens-type junctions and point to its involvement in microfilament bundle assembly.

Santa Cruz Biotechnology, inc. Santa Cruz Biotechnology

Gene Cards Gene Cards

Sino Biological,inc. Sino Biological

2. In mitochondria, where is the gene located that encode Cytochrome C and what keeps this protein trapped within the mitochondria? (Hint - Watch Part 2: Factors Involved in the Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis)

  • Cytochrome C is encoded by the CYCS gene located on chromosome 7.
  • Cytochrome C is trapped in the mitochondria via the outer membrane.

Lab 6 - Cytoskeleton Exercise

Analysis of Morphological phenotypes in Tm4 over-expressing B35 Neuroepithelial Cells- Group 2.PNG

1. What are the changes in phenotype that you observe between Group A and Group B?

Group B has a parabolic shape indicating a more consistent spread of morphological phenotypes. Group A is more erratic in that, there is double the amount of stringed morphological phenotype compared to any other. The graph shows that from those identified, Group A is missing one phenotype completely, Fan, and deficient in Pygnotic phenotype compared with Group B which has at least 4% of each phenotype identified.

These results are congruent with group B being the control.

2. How does Tm4 mediate these changes?

As evidently seen in the difference from Group A to B (control), Tm4 has an obvious effect on the morphological phenotypes of the Neuroepithelial cells. It appears to cause longer processes which can be seen by the significantly larger percentage of Stringed (56%) compared to Group B stringed (18%) phenotypes depicted.

Tm4 is an isoform of an actin binding protein responsible for stabilization in actin filaments. Here it is shown that in group A, Tm4 allows the growth of these filaments to produced longer processes and thus connections between the Neuroepithelial cells. This indicates that there is more cell activity going on than is Group B where the amount of Stringed cells was in proportion to Fanned, broken fanned and pygnotic.

Lab 9 - Tissue Culture 1

1. Identify from one of the cell line repositories: a neural cell line and a muscle cell line.

Neural Cell Line: CRL-2926

Muscle Cell Line: CRL-1598

2. Identify the species and growth conditions for these cell lines

Neural line: CRL-2926

Species - mus musculus (mouse)

Medium - ATCC complete growth medium: Minimum essential medium (Eagle) with non-essential amino acids and 4 mM L-glutamine, 90%; fetal bovine serum, 10%. Temperature: 37.0°C

Muscle line: CRL-1598

Species - homo sapien

Medium - ATCC complete growth medium: The base medium for this cell line is ATCC-formulated Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, Catalog No. 30-2002. To make the complete growth medium, add the following components to the base medium: fetal bovine serum to a final concentration of 10%.Temperature: 37.0°C

Lab 10 - MicroArray Visit