Talk:Cell Export - Exocytosis

From CellBiology

Cisternal organization of the endoplasmic reticulum during mitosis

Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Aug;20(15):3471-80. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E09-04-0327. Epub 2009 Jun 3.

Lu L1, Ladinsky MS, Kirchhausen T.


The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of animal cells is a single, dynamic, and continuous membrane network of interconnected cisternae and tubules spread out throughout the cytosol in direct contact with the nuclear envelope. During mitosis, the nuclear envelope undergoes a major rearrangement, as it rapidly partitions its membrane-bound contents into the ER. It is therefore of great interest to determine whether any major transformation in the architecture of the ER also occurs during cell division. We present structural evidence, from rapid, live-cell, three-dimensional imaging with confirmation from high-resolution electron microscopy tomography of samples preserved by high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution, unambiguously showing that from prometaphase to telophase of mammalian cells, most of the ER is organized as extended cisternae, with a very small fraction remaining organized as tubules. In contrast, during interphase, the ER displays the familiar reticular network of convolved cisternae linked to tubules.

PMID 19494040


Lecture Audio

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Lecture 5 Audio Lecture Date: 2013-03-26 Lecture Time: 15:00 Venue: WW LG02 Speaker: Dr Mark Hill

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What is the Golgi apparatus, and why are we asking?

BMC Biol. 2011 Sep 30;9:63. doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-9-63.

Munro S. Source MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB20QH, UK.

PMID 21961959

© 2011 Munro; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


signal recognition particle (SRP) ribonucleoprotein particle

Golgi Apparatus

Membrane traffic within the Golgi apparatus

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2009;25:113-32.

Glick BS, Nakano A.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. Abstract Newly synthesized secretory cargo molecules pass through the Golgi apparatus while resident Golgi proteins remain in the organelle. However, the pathways of membrane traffic within the Golgi are still uncertain. Most of the available data can be accommodated by the cisternal maturation model, which postulates that Golgi cisternae form de novo, carry secretory cargoes forward and ultimately disappear. The entry face of the Golgi receives material that has been exported from transitional endoplasmic reticulum sites, and the exit face of the Golgi is intimately connected with endocytic compartments. These conserved features are enhanced by cell-type-specific elaborations such as tubular connections between mammalian Golgi cisternae. Key mechanistic questions remain about the formation and maturation of Golgi cisternae, the recycling of resident Golgi proteins, the origins of Golgi compartmental identity, the establishment of Golgi architecture, and the roles of Golgi structural elements in membrane traffic.

PMID: 19575639

Working area

  • exocytosis - historically called "emiocytosis"
  • endocytosis - phagocytosis for solids, pinocytosis for fluids
  • SNARE complex formed from SNARE proteins (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor Attachment protein REceptor) the role is to mediate fusion of cellular transport vesicles with the cell membrane (exocytosis) or with a target compartment such as a lysosome (endocytosis). PMID: 8221884
  • trans golgi network - face of the trans-Golgi network from which vesicles leave the Golgi apparatus.
  • Terms: endocytic TGN, Golgi apparatus, multivesicular bodies (MVBs), ribosomes, secretory vesicle,
  • Search: SNARE protein | multivesicular bodies
  • regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine cells
  • Lamellar bodies are lysosome-related secretory granules and store lung surfactant in alveolar type II cells.
  • Plants desmotubule - derived from smooth endoplasmic reticulum passing through the plasmodesmata.
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Mammalian proteins transported into er
Export from the ER in living cells
Golgi apparatus endocytic TGN
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