From CellBiology

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Individual Projects

You should by now have answers to your homework questions and your selected individual project topic.

Lab Homework

Lab 6 - Cytoskeleton Exercise

"If you've seen differences in the distribution of phenotypes in Tm4 over-expressing B35 cells versus control B35 cells, describe these differences."

Groups/Phenotypes Fan Broken Fan Stumped Pronged Stringed Pygnotic
Group A 4 10 5 59 64 2
Group B 3 36 1 43 14 6

Group A total=144; estimated Average= 24

Group B total=103; estimated Average= 17.2

The results in this study gives us the distribution in the number of different phenotypes for both Groups A and B. Group A has been counted to have 144 neural cells while Group B had 103 neural cells. We counted more Pronged and Stringed Neural cells in group A, giving Pronged and Stringed Neural cells the average of 41% and 44% respectively compared to the estimated group A average only standing at 24%. Group B,however, has 42% of Pronged neural cells compared to the estimated Group B average of 17.2%.

The above table itself conveys that group A neural cells are likely to carry over-expressed Tm4 gene. Over-expressed Tm4 gene is likely to suggest array of phenotypic morphology. Group B may be indicative of wild type neural cells.

Group B neural cells tend to be longer and thinner while Group A neural cells tend to be shorter and have more synapses with the dendrites of neighbouring neural cells. Hence, the findings may lead us to the hypothesis, "over-expression of Tm4 gene would lead to over-activation of ion channels, and thus the release of transmitter substances, which can lead to primary neurite synapses in early differentiation stage".

Ps: Hamid and I worked as a pair in this exercise. Hence, we both have the same results.

Lab 7 - Confocal Microscopy

What are the 2 main forms of confocal microscopy?

1. Confocal laser screening microscope (CLSM)

2. Spinning disk confocal microscope

Lecture Feedbacks

Lecture 4 - Nucleus

I love nucleus because it is a very crucial membrane-enclosed organelle as it carries the genetic material. It has an important role in regulation of gene expression. The nuclear envelope is the main structural component of the nucleus. Nucleus has a double membrane that encloses the nucleus and separates it from the cellular cytoplasm.

Lecture 5 - Exocytosis

I found this lecture quite easy as I studied exocytosis in the endocrinology lecture series of Human Physiology 1B course in my 2nd year. The more detailed Cell Biology lecture on exocytosis really grabbed my interest. However, the secretory vesicles and its relation with membrane turnover urged me to have a further read so that I can have a good understanding of it.

Lecture 7 - What types of cellular processes require lots of energy from the mitochondria?

· Skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction

· Sperm tail and flagella(need lots of energy for mobility.)

· Cellular respiration

· Cell division

· Glycolytic reaction

· Apoptotic funtions

Lecture 8 - What do the acronyms I-CAM, L-CAM, N-CAM, Ng-CAM all mean?

· I-CAM-Intracellular Cell Adhesion Molecule.

· L-CAM- Liver Cell Adhesion Molecule involved in cell-cell adhesion.

· N-CAM- Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule.

· Ng-CAM- Neural Glial Cell Adhesion Molecule.

Lecture 10 - What is the name of the epidermal layer between the basal and granulosa layer and how does it relate to intermediate filaments?

The Stratum Spinosum is the cuboidal epithelial skin layer between the Stratum Basale and the Stratum Granulosum.

Lecture 15 - Cell Cycle

S in the S phase of the cell cycle stands for Synthesis.

Group Project

Group Project 4 is still under construction. Click Tropomyosin-receptor-Kinase (Trk) to view it to date.

Students I have assessed:

A z3191801

B z3132868

C z3217582

D z3191358

E z3207164

F z3224479

Peer assessment

1.Spell & Grammar check

  1. "PI3K involves in different signaling pathways and controlling of key functions of the cell." This sentence should be reworded to maybe "P13K is involved in different signaling pathways and the control of key functions of the cell.
  2. "The ability of Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) to activate a number of signal..." here you've already abbreviated P13K earlier in the text, so you can shorten it to "The ability of PI3K to activate a number of signal..."
  3. "PI3Ks are a family of enzymes with three subclasses based on their structure and substrate specificity. Hence, each class structurally exhibits distinct substrate specificity." Here at the first sentence of STRUCTURE these two sentences are essentially a repetition...
  4. "PI3K Class I is heterodimeric enzyme" should read "PI3K Class I is a heterodimeric enzyme"
  5. "PI3K Class II is slightly larger enzymes amongst the subclasses of PI3K and has different structure and function" should read "PI3K Class II are slightly larger enzymes amongst the subclasses of PI3K and have different structure and function.
  6. "Class III are structurally related to the product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene Vps34" this sentence repeats itself and doesnt make sense.
  7. Other sentences need refining...need to a better proof-read to see how it sounds aloud.

2.In the INTRODUCTION, there is too much jargon and it is very difficult to understand a background about the protein. Relation of the functions described in the introduction should perhaps be refined down to a briefer explanation of the molecular basis of its interaction and include some information of its impact on cellular function as a whole, which you've mentioned in the FUNcTION section. Also , you might think about including something on the role of the enzymes/proteins which interact with P13K and how this relates back to function or location etc.

The STRUCTURE section shows a good understanding of the protein on a molecular level and is a strong point. might like to add some more to the legend of the picture here.

in CONTROL OF APOPTOSIS again there is a lot of jargon which needs simplifying for others without a knowledge of the proteins etc. that you're talking about. The information is lost because its too complicated and reads a bit too much like a journal article.

MOLECULAR BASIS OF DISEASE is also a strong section but needs a bit of proof-reading to make it read better. Good concepts conveyed though.

Referencing is great throughout the entire page, and its a good length. well done!

3. You should probably make your protein title more prominent as I couldn’t see it right up the top so small in comparison to your other headings. Under your “structure” section in the final line (“subunit (p110)to activated”) of the introduction, there is no space between “(p110)” and “to”. The resolution of the second image is a tad low, can’t really see anything that is in those little boxes. Could add some more pictures that are relevant for the “function” section as it is quite informative and hard to visualise all the factors and whatnot that are mentioned. Good overall flow of information and I particularly liked the incorporation of the “molecular basis of disease” and “current research” sections at the end of the page. Referencing throughout the page is very good, well done.

4.--Anna Cao 12:59, 21 May 2009 (EST) I agree with all of the above. Also, the image "The involvement of PI3K in intracellular signaling" is very difficult to see. Maybe you can replace this or if it is not entirely relevant maybe you can get rid of it. Overall, I think it's good.

5.z3222840 : The functions are clearly explained. However the second picture wasn't clear. Some grammar mistakes and few repeated words in the same paragraph e.g. PI3Ks are a family of enzymes with three subclasses based on their structure and substrate specificity. Hence, each class structurally exhibits distinct substrate specificity. Nonetheless the structures were stated properly and the very current research was added which came from 2009! Great job!

6.z3217578: It's a bit hard to understand the second image, as you can't read the text within the piture. Overall pretty good, loved the first image but the second one was a bit of a mess.

7.z3132868: Its pretty good overall! Explanation of structure and function of the protein is quite easily understood. The 2nd image however is a bit fuzzy, might want to find a better image to replace it. You might want to be more specific with the background of the protein in the introduction and give more explanation to the current research at the bottom as a conclusion.

Thank you very much for your constructive comments. Your comments will be taken into consideration to improve my individual project before final submission.--Serkan Erkan 17:45, 26 May 2009 (EST)

In accordance with your comments, I have made number of changes. They definitely helped me improve my project. Thank you once again. --Serkan Erkan 01:10, 27 May 2009 (EST)