Talk:2017 Group 4 Project

From CellBiology

2017 Projects: Group 1 - Delta | Group 2 - Duct | Group 3 - Beta | Group 4 - Alpha


Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.


Cells of the Pancreas  
The Endocrine Pancreas The Exocrine Pancreas
(pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans)

NCBI Bookshelf Resources

Development Sources


Examples of Database searches  
Database Example search Wiki code (note - copy text when in Read mode)
Pubmed (all databases) pancreas [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/gquery?term=pancreas ''pancreas'']
Pubmed pancreas [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=pancreas ''pancreas'']
Pubmed 5 most recent references[1] <pubmed limit=5>pancreas</pubmed>
Pubmed Central pancreas [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=pancreas ''pancreas'']
Pubmed Central (images) pancreas [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=pancreas&report=imagesdocsum ''pancreas'']
PLoS (Public Library of Science) pancreas [https://www.plos.org/?s=pancreas&submit=Go ''pancreas'']
BioMed Central pancreas [http://www.biomedcentral.com/search/results?terms=pancreas ''pancreas'']
BMC Cell Biology pancreas [http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmccellbiol/search/results?terms=pancreas ''pancreas'']
BMC Developmental Biology pancreas [http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcdevbiol/search/results?terms=pancreas ''pancreas'']
Biology Open (BiO) pancreas [http://bio.biologists.org/search?submit=yes&titleabstract=pancreas&andorexacttitleabs=and&fulltext=&submit=yes&submit=Submit ''pancreas'']
  1. Note the references appear where the code is pasted and will be updated each time the page is loaded, and may occasionally list articles that do not appear directly related to the search topic.
About Journal Searches  
The following general information is about the above online databases and journals.

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.

  • PubMed - comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
    • PubMed Central (PMC) - is a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM).
  • Public Library of Science (PLOS) - is a nonprofit publisher and advocacy organization founded to accelerate progress in science and medicine by leading a transformation in research communication.
  • BioMed Central (BMC) - is an STM (Science, Technology and Medicine) publisher of 291 peer-reviewed open access journals.
    • BMC Developmental Biology - is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on the development, growth, differentiation and regeneration of multicellular organisms, including molecular, cellular, tissue, organ and whole organism research.
    • Reproductive Health - is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal focusing on all aspects of human reproduction.
    • Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology (RB&E) - aims to act as a forum for the dissemination of results from excellent research in the reproductive sciences. RB&E represents a global platform for reproductive and developmental biologists, reproductive endocrinologists, immunologists, theriogenologists, infertility specialists, obstetricians, gynecologists, andrologists, urogynecologists, specialists in menopause, reproductive tract oncologists, and reproductive epidemiologists.
  • Biology Open (BiO) - is an online-only Open Access journal that publishes peer-reviewed original research across all aspects of the biological sciences, including cell science, developmental biology and experimental biology.

Assessment

Project Edits

  • Z3329177 - 174 - good bonging contribution
  • Z5043057 - 76 - 13-18 May 2017‎
  • Z5059696 - 66 - 25 May 2017‎ (8), 21 May 2017‎ (18), 20 May 2017‎ (18) 24 April 2017‎ (17)
  • Z3465108 - 46 - 24 May 2017‎ (14), 23 May 2017‎ (12), 22 May 2017‎ (11), 21 May 2017‎ (4), 9 May 2017‎ (4), 29 April 2017‎ (1). This is not considered an ongoing contribution to the project page.

Images

  • Z3329177 - 3 images
  • Z5059696 - 3 images
  • Z5043057 - 3 images
  • Z3465108 - 1 image


  • General comment - The figures required more detailed information in their summary boxes when opened individually. In many cases they included just the original figure legend. In some no additional information.
  • Fig 4 Description, Ref, Copyright and student template OK. Minor - Unnecessary space in file name.
  • Fig 5 Z5059696 student drawn image. Includes source but no additional information included in summary box. This was a place for detailed description, does not even state species (mouse?)
  • Fig 6 Description, Ref, Copyright and student template OK. Included own description, but needs more detail.
  • Fig 7 Description, Ref, Copyright and student template OK. File name does not represent good description of the image.
  • Fig 8 Description, Ref, Copyright and student template OK. File name does not represent good description of the image.

General Comments

  • General project page layout is clearly organised. Balance between text and image elements throughout page.
  • Project includes a significant number and range of research references. Not clear distinction in the text between research articles and reviews.
  • There is a lot of useful molecular information on cell development. This could have been more useful as a teaching source by linking to the related OMIM database entries.
  • Historical events table a good inclusion showing timeline of discoveries. I am concerned though that it stops at 1948. Surely there have been significant research discoveries since almost 70 years ago?
  • Figures required more detailed information in their summary boxes when opened individually.
    • This was an opportunity to explain the figure in your own words as well as the original interpretation, which would have been specific to the original source.
    • In many cases they included just the original figure legend. In some no additional information.
    • Student drawn image simply duplicated information from a previous figure which was better.
  • Videos were a good information inclusion.
  • Glucagon and Glucagon receptor section required an illustration that would have also highlighted the signaling pathway.
  • Glossary included many terms that appeared on the project page (but not all)
    • Several molecular acronyms are identified in the text where they first appear, but are not listed in the glossary.


Assessment Criteria

These are general comments.

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. Yes, clarity and content could be improved.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Yes, good selection of subheadings, better media descriptions required.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced. Yes/No at least one image requires source reuse clarification.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Yes, needs more explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Yes, significant number of research sources
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology. Yes/No could have also related back (linked) to undergraduate course content.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Yes, evidence of changes in response to peer feedback.
  8. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  9. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  10. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning. Yes
  11. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. Yes/No see above comments.

Things To-Do

(Hey guys, I just wanted to type up a list of things to-do, feel free to add and delete as you go :))

1. Type up Introduction section

2. Expand the videos and write a short description of each so that it is easy to navigate (according to the feedback we received)

3. Update current research section

4. Double check all images are correctly referenced/copyright/described/formatted

lab 2 research articles

Function

<pubmed>22847495</pubmed> The primary function of pancreatic alpha-cells is to secrete glucagon in post-absorptive state to maintain glucose homeostasis. According to recent studies, it has been stated that alpha-cells originated from beta-cells, and if an adjacent beta-cell was injured, the alpha-cell may differentiate into a beta-cell. In this study, it proposes a change in the transcription factor can lead to the differentiation of pro-alpha-cells into beta-cells. This research primarily touches upon the function of pancreatic alpha-cells.

Development

<pubmed>21283589</pubmed> Type II diabetes mellitus is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction in patients. This primary research article aims to test the effect of insulin and glucagon on the regulation of pancreatic alpha-cell proliferation through the use of Leptin db/db mice. It also aimed to see the factors that may turnover alpha-cell proliferation and its signaling pathways. During the research, the alpha-cell number and glucagon levels were raised in db/db mice as diabetes progressed. Thus, resulting in insulin promoting alpha-cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner.This research is related to the development of alpha-cells especially the factors that affect alpha-cell proliferation.

<pubmed>20377917</pubmed> In this research, the researchers aimed to investigate the roles of different Pax6 domains in regards to the development of pancreatic alpha cells. Pax6 is primarily responsible for the maintenance and development of the endocrine pancreas. In the Pax6 knockout mice group, it was observed that transcription factors in the development process was absent. The results were, despite the loss of pax6 domain and the presence of transactivation domain it had led to the absence of fully differentiated alpha cells. This relates to the development subsection as it portrays factors that may affect the complete development of pancreatic alpha cells.

Abnormalities

<pubmed>24705399</pubmed> Dysfunctional pancreatic alpha-cells contributes to a number of different results: disruption of the glucose homeostasis and triggers the hypersecretion of insulin. This experiment was studied through glucocorticoid-treated rats. Two sets of rats were used; one set was injected with dexamethasone(DEX) while the other set was injected with saline. At the end of the study DEX rats were found to have inhibited glucagon secretion. Results demonstrated hyperglycemia may be the result of dysfunctional pancreatic alpha cells. This research is associated with the after effect of an abnormal pancreatic alpha-cell.

<pubmed>18640586</pubmed> Excessive glucagon production by pancreatic alpha cells is a feature of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Glucoincretins is a possible choice to help regulate glucagon levels through glucose transporters GLUT2 and the K-ATP dependent channels. Treatment of abnormal pancreatic alpha cells will restore the normal glucagon secretion and prevent iatrogenic hypoglycemia.

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0093531 This hyperglucagonemia may result from altered α-cell function and, likely, α-cell mass. Additionally, blockage of the glucagon receptor seems to be effective in preventing the elevation in blood glucose levels induced by GC administration. pancreatic α-cell is an integral part of maintaining glucose homeostasis.


1. >>>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342530/ Type 2 diabetes is often linked to the crucial role it plays on Type 2 diabetes. However, pancreatic alpha-cell dysfunction plays an equally crucial role in disrupting glucose homeostasis provoking type 2 diabetes. Unger and Orci presented a theory known as "bihormonal theory" it states "relatively or absolutely hypoinsulinemia and relative hyperglucagonemia raise hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D) [ REFERENCE NEEDED!]"

T2D- Alpha.jpg

pancreatic alpha cell dysfunction = excessive glucagon secretion

"Recently, numerous findings indicate that the defects of glucagon secretion get involve with development and exacerbation of hyperglycemia in T2D"

Cell-matrix Interactions

<pubmed>28215845</pubmed> Pancreatic alpha cells can be converted into beta cells in an environment of significant beta cell loss. The experiment showed that when alpha cell regulators, Aristaless-related homeobox (Arx) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1), were inactivated, there as efficient conversion of alpha cells into beta cells. This shows a close relationship with alpha and beta cells.

<pubmed>28009296</pubmed> In non-diabetic individuals, the release of serotonin from pancreatic beta cells, stimulated by increases in glucose, decrease cAMP in nearby alpha cells, inhibiting glucagon secretion. This interaction between alpha and beta cells shows the importance of an intricate system of pancreatic cells.

type 2 diabetes

Evolution of Type 2 diabetes, pancreatic alpha cells are exposed to the metabolic stress. Only alpha cell adapt stress and resistance to apoptosis and even increase hormone, while beta cell cannot. This resistance due to the enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic proteins which is Bcl211 and BCl2

<pubmed>PMC4485913</pubmed>

regulation

In mouse pancreatic alpha cells and αTC1.6 cells have histamine H3 receptor. H3R inhibites increasing in intracellular Ca2+ concentration this leads inhibiting secretion from αTC1.6 cells. The research suggest that H3R modulates glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells.

<pubmed>PMC4309840</pubmed>

HMGN3 is highly expressed in all pancreatic endocrine islet cells, they tested with the Hmgn3-/-mice which have a mild diabetic phenotype, reduced glucagon level in their blood. They examine whether HMGN3 affect glucagon synthesis and secretion in αTC1-9 cells. They found deletion of either HMGN3 or other HMGN variants, no significant affect glucagon gene expression or glucagon secretion. Glucagon secretion does not dependent to HMGN3.

<pubmed>PMC3402347</pubmed>

glucagon

Glucagon receptor has been identified in most beta cells and subset of α- and δ-cells. So, within the islet, glucagon is likely to function as a paracrine regulator of hormone secretion. Activation of glucagon receptors in β- and δ-cells stimulates insulin and somatostatin secretion through elevation of intracellular cAMP. However the impact of glucagon on alpha cells is difficult to evaluate, test of glucagon receptor knockout mice shows that glucagon is a negative regulator of its own secretion, because they are hyperglucagonemic and have hyperplasia of alpha cells.

<pubmed>PMC4530398</pubmed>

Articles

<pubmed>PMC322540</pubmed>

This article is relevant to our group project because it discusses the function of the alpha cell and also explores its relationship with diabetes. The glucagon levels of patients (diabetic and non diabetic) were raised through arginine exposure. The patients were given glucose and this induced hyperglycemia resulted in the decrease of the glucagon levels. It was found that the diabetic patients resulted in a significantly higher rise in glucagon when the arginine was present compared with the non-diabetic patients. The article observed raised glucagon levels in severe diabetic ketoacidosis prior to the patient being administered with insulin. This article suggests that in diabetes mellitus alpha cell function is increased, which results in raised glucose concentration in the blood which could be playing a role in the disease.


<pubmed>10868931</pubmed> This article is relevant to our alpha cell group project as it explains the origin and development of the alpha cell. The article states that the notch pathway is involved in preventing the alpha cell to differentiate prematurely. Pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PXD1) is a transcription factor involved in pancreatic development. The study states that PXD1+ epithelial cells are a class of these transcription factors that are distinct by their expression of the Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) protein. Ngn3 is a transcription factor which, in a basic helix- loop- helix cascade, acts upstream of NeuroD. And NeuroD+ cells form rapidly from Ngn3 expressing cells. The study shows that Ki-67 ,a proliferating cell marker, is found in Ngn3+ cells which supports that Ngn3+ cells are endocrine precursor cells. This highlights the idea that PXD1+/Ngn3+ epithelial cells develop into alpha cells. Activation of NeuroD expression begins alpha cell development through gene activation and inhibition. The expression of Notch1 in PDX epithelial cells inhibits the Ngn-NeuroD cascade. This notch signaling represses early endocrine cell differentiation.


<pubmed>17136393</pubmed> This article is relevant and important to the project as it discusses the function (and lack of function) of the alpha cell. This article discusses the inhibitory effect of glucose on the secretion of glucagon in mouse subjects. The article suggests that this inhibitory effect is due to direct impact on alpha cells. Incubated mouse islet cells were exposed to different levels of glucagon, insulin and somatostatin. The concentrations of cytoplasmic calcium (Ca2+) in the alpha cells were measured. It was found that neither insulin (beta cell factor) nor somatostatin facilitate glucose inhibition of glucagon secretion. Glucose lowers the Ca2+ levels of the alpha cells independently through the enzyme sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, which prevents depolarizing in the cells, inhibiting glucagon secretion.


<pubmed>PMC38931</pubmed> This article is relevant to our group project as it explains the mechanism of the role of alpha cells in glucose homeostasis. Using rat models, the study states that glucokinase expression occurs in alpha cells when they produce glucagon. Glucokinase acts as a sensor to glucose levels in the blood, when the glucose levels rise glucokinase signals that glucagon must be released to decrease this hyperglycemia. The study also reported that Glut2 and glucokinase were not both expressed during this signaling process suggesting co-expression is not necessary for the regulation mechanism.



video

Endocrinology - Glucagon  

YouTube Link

Pancreas - Islets of Langerhan - Alpha Cells - Beta Cells - Glucagon - Insulin  

YouTube Link

Production of insulin and glucagon  

YouTube Link

Peer Review

Group 4 (Alpha Cells)

The main headings are suitable and, when content is added, will make the wiki easier to navigate. Development is very well set out. It seems a little dense in terms of sub-headings but once the information is written out I’m sure it will make reading easier. The videos under “function and role” are excellent additions. A brief summary of each of them or referring to them in the text will make it easier to link information together. *The diseases and abnormalities section is also well done so far. Although it hasn’t been put together yet the notes and dot points under each section show that there is good research and presentation of the different aspects of Alpha-cells.

Group 4

Your page seems to have the most images up compared to the other groups, which is a great start since images are a useful learning tool to utilise on the project pages. The page also seems to have covered the topic well in the sub-sectioning, however, the page is definitely severely lacking in content and references when compared to other groups. It does seem a lot of preliminary research has been conducted however, in all sections other than history, references are not included. Although it is clear that the page is in its very early stages, improvements could be made through the addition of tables to present information, possibly could be used in the “Development of the pancreas” as well as expanding on the visual aids; explaining what the videos and images show to highlight their purpose on the page.

Overall I can see the page is off to a good start, however compared to the other pages, more effort might need to be placed into the gathering of content and providing more extensive research for each sub-section. Unlike the other groups I can appreciate the effort placed into the finding of useful visual aids, as well as the use of the thumbnail and captioning of “Figure 1” which all other groups did not do as thoroughly.

Group 4 (Alpha Cells)

Clearly there is a lot of filling-out that needs to occur, but the structure that's there does seem to be logical and well thought-out. I agree that the images and videos there are great, but perhaps think about the prospect of increasing the size of the embedded videos to ease in watching. Additionally, I feel some microscopy images in addition to the drawn diagrams already provided would be beneficial. The details in the notes of the 'Development' subheading seem really detailed and excellent, but other areas such as 'Current Research' have no notes at all. I think that once the full extent of your content has been added, the page will greatly benefit from the formatting already in place. The lack of references thus far obviously requires some attention- it would be far easier to do this as you go, rather than leave filling them in until the last-minute. Otherwise I think there's a lot of potential and think it will look good come completion.

Group 4 (Alpha Cells)

According to the current state of the page, this group certainly needs to put in more effort in collecting all the information together since all the important notes have been listed down in dot points. I am very certain that once everything is completed, it would be a good final project. The images added are in fact very useful in providing better explanations to the viewers. The videos added to the page are in fact very interesting and easy to understand. However, I would suggest that the size of the image under ‘Disease’ subheading to be enlarged just a little bit more. Most of the images have not been referenced properly and there is no copyright information as well. The ‘Current Research’ subheading clearly needs some attention, as it is empty. The subheadings could also be more organized I believe. Overall, it is a good start since a considerable amount of information has been provided.

Group 4:

Upon first glance, this project has the least amount of information present on its page when compared against the other projects. Observing the history page, frequent contributions have been made by team members however the sizes of the contributions are relatively small, contributing to the overall progress of the page. On a positive note, the subheadings on the page are very relevant to the topic which definitely suggests a good start. Most sections also have dot points under them thus implying that a draft of the section is slowly being constructed, which is also encouraging. The inclusion of a table and numerous images is commendable as it portrays a range of visual aids, which I believe is necessary to actively capture the audience’s attention. I would encourage the inclusion of a video to further captivate audiences and reinforce what is written in text as videos usually provide clearer and more colloquial explanations, which would be valuable for readers without a science background.

The general readability and flow of the ‘disease and abnormalities’ section, which is the only section with paragraphs of information, is good. It is encouraging to see that the image has been integrated with, and referred to, in the text. Though, I would recommend figure captions as currently the section reads “As seen in figure 2…” however there is no indication of which image ‘figure 2’ is. The 4 references used thus far have been formatted correctly, but I advise the use of more references so that a broader range of information can be disclosed on the page. Overall, this project has made significantly less progress than the other projects although it is off to a good start. I would encourage team members to conduct more research and contribute larger amounts of information towards the project. A possible suggestion for further research would be to compare the role, structure and function of alpha cells across different organisms, such as humans and animals. Overall, a large amount of work is still required to be done before the project can be considered complete. When compared to the other projects I have peer-reviewed, I would say that this project is presently the least informative.

Group 4 (Alpha):

Positive: (1) Good start to the “History” section. I like the use of the table and organizing the information by year. (2) I like that you also have a lot of images up compared to the other groups. You just need to elaborate on them more. For instance, add a caption to each of the images. Negative/ Suggestions: (1) The videos are great and easy to understand. In my opinion, I think they would look better on the page if they are expanded and are visibly shown on the page (like what Group 1 did on their project). When I first read through your project I missed the videos completely. Viewers will be able to notice the videos and watch them if they are right there on the page. I also suggest adding a brief description of each video on what it is about. Overall: Your group project is the least progressed compared to the other groups right now. I can see that you did do a lot of research on the other topics/ headings (“Pancreas Development, “Signalling”, etc.) by the bullets and quick notes. Once you organize the information into sentences and paragraphs, I’m sure your project will be really great!

Group 4 - Alpha Cells

There has been a good start to this page, I especially like the table in 'History' and the images used so far - although these images don't seem to be referenced properly. The sub headings used so far are useful, although these could be linked better - for example why endocrine cells link to development. Introduction and structure need more adding - although you have lots of time to do this. Overall referencing needs to be looked at but the information down so far is helpful. I also like the use of videos on this page. Some sections are still in bullet points - these could be combined into sentences - also with some of the signalling processes in this part you could make images to make them easier to follow? Overall, a good start though.

Group 4 - Alpha cells All the headings and subheadings look suitable and very detailed, however it looks like there are still a number of sub headings that still need to be worked and filled out. The good use of pictures, diagrams and other small features of the wiki make the website look more interesting and informative. The use of table in History section looks very nice as it make the information easy to look at. A lot of information in Development section is well divided and explained under small headings. However, they will have to be organised into sentences and paragraphs. Also, Proper referencing and citation will have to done at the end, before finalising the website. Using videos for the Function section is nice as it will ease the understanding of the content, however, adding few lines or key points to the section will be better. Overall, once all the information for each section is collected, more organised, this website will be great!