Talk:2017 Group 3 Project

From CellBiology

2017 Projects: Group 1 - Delta | Group 2 - Duct | Group 3 - Beta | Group 4 - Alpha

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Cells of the Pancreas  
The Endocrine Pancreas The Exocrine Pancreas
(pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans)

NCBI Bookshelf Resources

Development Sources

Examples of Database searches  
Database Example search Wiki code (note - copy text when in Read mode)
Pubmed (all databases) pancreas [ ''pancreas'']
Pubmed pancreas [ ''pancreas'']
Pubmed 5 most recent references[1] <pubmed limit=5>pancreas</pubmed>
Pubmed Central pancreas [ ''pancreas'']
Pubmed Central (images) pancreas [ ''pancreas'']
PLoS (Public Library of Science) pancreas [ ''pancreas'']
BioMed Central pancreas [ ''pancreas'']
BMC Cell Biology pancreas [ ''pancreas'']
BMC Developmental Biology pancreas [ ''pancreas'']
Biology Open (BiO) pancreas [ ''pancreas'']
  1. Note the references appear where the code is pasted and will be updated each time the page is loaded, and may occasionally list articles that do not appear directly related to the search topic.
About Journal Searches  
The following general information is about the above online databases and journals.

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.

  • PubMed - comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
    • PubMed Central (PMC) - is a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM).
  • Public Library of Science (PLOS) - is a nonprofit publisher and advocacy organization founded to accelerate progress in science and medicine by leading a transformation in research communication.
  • BioMed Central (BMC) - is an STM (Science, Technology and Medicine) publisher of 291 peer-reviewed open access journals.
    • BMC Developmental Biology - is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on the development, growth, differentiation and regeneration of multicellular organisms, including molecular, cellular, tissue, organ and whole organism research.
    • Reproductive Health - is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal focusing on all aspects of human reproduction.
    • Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology (RB&E) - aims to act as a forum for the dissemination of results from excellent research in the reproductive sciences. RB&E represents a global platform for reproductive and developmental biologists, reproductive endocrinologists, immunologists, theriogenologists, infertility specialists, obstetricians, gynecologists, andrologists, urogynecologists, specialists in menopause, reproductive tract oncologists, and reproductive epidemiologists.
  • Biology Open (BiO) - is an online-only Open Access journal that publishes peer-reviewed original research across all aspects of the biological sciences, including cell science, developmental biology and experimental biology.


Project Edits

  • Z5061522 - 201
  • Z5076777 - 185
  • Z5158862 - 13 - 28 March 2017‎, 4 April 2017‎ (3), 11 April 2017‎ (5), 24 May 2017‎ (2), 25 May 2017‎ (2) This is not considered significant ongoing contribution to the project page.


  • Z5076777 - 10 figures, 2 additional deleted. Please note that simply including the copyright statement does not mean that you comply, specifically when it clearly states copyright restrictions.
  • Z5061522 - 1 figure
  • Z5158862 - 1 figure

General Comments

  • General project page layout is clearly organised. Balance between text and image elements throughout page.
  • Historical events table a good inclusion showing timeline of discoveries.
  • Project includes a significant number and range of research references. Not clear distinction in the text between research articles and reviews.
  • Figures required more detailed information in their summary boxes when opened individually.
    • Some figures were deleted before assessment for copyright violation.
    • This was an opportunity to explain the figure in your own words as well as the original interpretation, which would have been specific to the original source.
    • In many cases they included just the original figure legend. In some no additional information.
  • Videos were a good information inclusion.

Lab 2 Assessment:


  • Paper 1

<pubmed>16988714</pubmed> This study analyses the mechanisms that control the responses of the beta cells; their ability to adapt to physiological changes. The study specifically delves into the effects of calcineurin inhibitors- used to treat diabetetic patients, highlighting the effects of calcineurin and activated T-cells (NFAT) signalling controlling islet responses. The study - utilising mice with a specific beta cell deletion of the regulatory subunit calcineurin b1 (Cnb1), finds a consequent age-dependent development of diabetes due to the resulting reduced beta-cell proliferation and insulin production. However with the expression of NFATc1 in the Cnb1 deficient cells, proliferation and insulin production increased. Hence calcineurin and NFAT are identified as regulatory factors within beta-cell function, thus providing relevant information on the signalling pathways that surrounding beta-cells.

  • Paper 2

Folli F, Okada T, Perego C, Gunton J, Liew CW, Akiyama M, et al. (2011) Altered Insulin Receptor Signalling and β-Cell Cycle Dynamics in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. PLoS ONE 6(11): e28050. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.002805

This paper explores insulin signalling of islet cells, utilising samples from humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The paper analyses the effects throughout the signalling pathway that ultimately leads to reduction of beta-cell mass, revealing the altered expression of insulin receptors, insulin receptor substrate-2 and phosphorylated BAD within the T2DM cells. These findings were confirmed as defective signalling was seen to reverse through the re-expression of insulin receptors in the knock out cells, leading to increased cell cycle progression and proliferation; indicating a role of insulin signalling in beta-cell growth. These findings provide relevant information on both signalling pathways leading to the growth and development of the beta-cell.

  • Paper 3:

Curran AM, Ryan MF, Drummond E, Gibney ER, Gibney MJ, Roche HM, et al. (2016) Uncovering Factors Related to Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0161350. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161350

This study explores abnormalities in beta-cell function and its contribution to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The paper finds correlations between waist and hip ratio as well as the RA index (ratio of resistin and adiponectin) to beta-cell function with regard to insulin secretion. Ultimately the study confirms the RA index as a potential biomarker of beta-cell function status; an identification tool for people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, thus the article provides relevant information on abnormalities associated to beta cell function, as well as current research in finding preventative measures; allowing for early targeted lifestyle interventions for people at risk.

  • Paper 4

Lacy, P.E., 1967. The pancreatic beta cell: structure and function. New England Journal of Medicine, 276(4), pp.187-195.

This paper explores the functions and structure of the pancreatic beta-cell through the utilisation of electron microscopy and experimentation of beta-cells extracted from rat samples. The paper provides extensive detail on the cell structure, including the contents of the cell; the organelles, and detailed description of the cell’s surroundings; the contents of the islets of Langerhans and the capillary network associated. The paper provides analysis of the function of beta-cells; determining the effect of secretion of insulin from rat beta-cells that were administered glucose, glucagon, a high carbohydrate diet, anti-insulin serum and tolbutamide treatment. Functional information of the beta-cell is also provided within the paper through enzymatic activity study within the beta-cell; providing deeper knowledge into the insulin secretion stimulated by glucose level elevation within the blood travelling through the islets. Ultimately this paper provides relevant information on both the structure and function of the pancreatic beta-cell, presenting valuable experimental data and imaging to support the findings.


Article 1:

Article Title: Resveratrol and curcumin enhance pancreatic β-cell function by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity

Article Description: The key aim of this study is to determine the relationship between pancreatic β-cell function, resveratrol (RES) and curcumin (CUR), to examine whether or not RES and CUR enhances pancreatic β-cell function. RES and CUR are polyphenols, found predominately within fruits and turmeric, which have been previously reported to contain medicinal properties that are beneficial to diabetes mellitus patients. Previously published studies claim that the therapeutic properties of RES and CUR can be attributed to their anti-inflammatory effects and protection against β-cell dysfunction. This study thus seeks to examine such reported phenomenon by examining the mechanism/s of action of RES and CUR in β-cells. Results indicate that RES and CUR regulate insulin secretion under glucose-stimulated conditions, and increase intracellular levels of cAMP, which plays an important role in insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell health. The study also showcases that RES and CUR inhibit the activity of phosphodiesterases, which degrade cAMP. The polyphenols RES and CUR thus indeed enhance pancreatic β-cell function and have therapeutic benefits to diabetic patients.

Article Reference: <pubmed>25297556</pubmed>

Article 2:

Article Title: Ultrastructural Alterations of Pancreatic Beta Cells in Human Diabetes Mellitus

Article Description: The aim of this article is to investigate the correlation between pancreatic beta cells and diabetes mellitus, within humans. This is done by focusing on the ultrastructural alterations of beta cells in human diabetes. Throughout the study, beta cells have been retrieved from the pancreas of eight non-diabetic, five type 1 diabetic and eight type 2 diabetic organ donors, and analysed under morphometric electron microscopy. Results have indicated that lower quantities of beta cells are present in patients suffering type 1 and 2 diabetes, compared to non-diabetic patients. Additionally, insulin granules are more represented in non-diabetic patients than in type 2 diabetic patients, while type 1 diabetic patients show minimal changes. Pancreatic beta cells within diabetic patients have also showcased greater apoptosis than beta cells in non-diabetics. These results are expected to improve therapeutic measures for diabetes.

Article Reference: <pubmed>28303682</pubmed>

Article 3:

Article Title: Impairment of pancreatic β-cell function by chronic intermittent hypoxia

Article Description: The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate the link between chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and pancreatic β-cell function. Via experimentation on rodents, the results of this study indicate that mitochondrial oxidative stress, which is produced by CIH, causes decreased pancreatic β-cell function, or increased pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. This is demonstrated by augmented basal insulin secretion, insulin resistance, defective proinsulin processing and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This study thus contains direct evidence that CIH impacts β-cell function. As CIH is a hallmark of sleep apnoea, this study also indicates that CIH-impacted β-cell dysfunction could be a possible contributor to type 2 diabetes within sleep apnoea patients. It thus encourages possible future research in this area.

Article Reference: <pubmed>23709585</pubmed>

Article 4:

Article Title: Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B modulates pancreatic β-cell mass

Article Description: The goal of this study is to analyse the action/s of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which is an endoplasmic reticulum bound phosphatase that has been previously documented to negatively regulate insulin signalling, in pancreatic islets. Through experimental procedures on rodents and morphometric analysis of their pancreatic cells, the results of this study indicate that mice with PTP1B exhibit increased β-cell area, higher β-cell proliferation and decreased β-cell apoptosis, compared to their wild-type counterparts. This study thus sheds light on the involvement of PTP1B in β-cell physiology, and encourages the potential of PTP1B as a therapeutical target for the treatment of β-cell failure, which is characteristic of type 2 diabetes.

Article Reference: <pubmed>24587334</pubmed>


Article 1:


Citation: MacDonald PE, Rorsman P (2006) Oscillations, Intercellular Coupling, and Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β Cells. PLoS Biol 4(2): e49. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040049

Title: “Oscillations, Intercellular Coupling, and Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β Cells”


This article focuses on the function of Pancreatic B cells, how insulin is secreted into the circulatory system, and the effects of insulin on our body. Pancreatic B cells are the most abundant cells within the islets of Langerhans of the Pancreas. Its function is to release insulin into the bloodstream in order to regulate blood glucose level. Insulin is secreted from B cells by stimulus-secretion coupling. This process is dependent on electrical activity and Calcium (Ca2+) entry into B cells, via channels in the membranes. This article also covers, in detail, information on uncoupling protein (UCP2), ATP production in B cells, oscillations, how they affect the secretion of insulin by B cells, and how some of these processes can lead to diabetes.

Article 2:


Citation: Naftanel MA, Harlan DM (2004) Pancreatic Islet Transplantation. PLoS Med 1(3): e58. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010058

Title: “Pancreatic Islet Transplantation”


The focus of this article is on discovering new and better treatments for patients with diabetes, specifically type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Islet transplantation is one of the many treatments currently under experiments and seems to be the most promising. The organ donor’s pancreas undergoes a process where the exocrine functioning part of the organ is removed and the pancreatic islets (responsible for the endocrine function) is isolated. The isolated pancreatic islets are then placed in a vein and transported by blood to the liver. The islets will then be able to produce and secrete insulin. This treatment also has limitations and dangers. And for this reason it is still under experiment and not entirely suggested for diabetic patients everywhere.

Article 3:


Citation: Eventov-Friedman S, Tchorsh D, Katchman H, Shezen E, Aronovich A, Hecht G, et al. (2006) Embryonic Pig Pancreatic Tissue Transplantation for the Treatment of Diabetes. PLoS Med 3(7): e215. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030215

Title: “Embryonic Pig Pancreatic Tissue Transplantation for the Treatment of Diabetes”


This article also focuses on the idea of transplant for the treatment of diabetes, specifically using embryonic pig pancreatic tissue. The study in this article focuses on the growth potential, functionality, and immunogenicity of the embryonic pig pancreatic tissue harvested at different stages of development. After many trials, E42 (embryonic day 42) pig pancreas seems to be the most promising pig tissue for transplantation. It can enable massive growth of pic islets for a long period of time and shows reduced immunogenicity.

Article 4:


Citation: Brennand K, Huangfu D, Melton D (2007) All β Cells Contribute Equally to Islet Growth and Maintenance. PLoS Biol 5(7): e163. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050163

Title: All β Cells Contribute Equally to Islet Growth and Maintenance


This article focuses on the contribution of B cells to islet growth and maintenance. Whether or not all B cells contribute equally to cell growth, regeneration, and maintenance was tested in this article. Based on the two experiments performed (label-retaining analysis and clonal analysis) the results show that all B cells contribute equally to islet growth and maintenance. B cells are the major source of new B cells (by replication), and not stem cells, which was thought to be the major source of B cells growth and regeneration.

General Discussion:

Hey guys, good job on the research - cheers to our team spirit! From what we have so far, I think the overlap between some articles are quite interesting. Calcineurin/NFAT is seen to regulate beta-cell function and growth, and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B is also seen to regulate beta cell growth (increased proliferation). Hence, I think a section in our group project focusing on the factors influencing/regulating beta cell growth sounds good. Thoughts? Perhaps we could even be a bit creative here and research some new proteins/factors/etc which have a positive influence on beta cell growth and have not yet been incorporated into therapeutic use for diabetes and thus propose our own recommendations that they be therapeutically used? This could even overlap with the 'possible future research' section of our project. Thoughts? :) Z5061522

  • Hi, I'm glad you brought this up since we do need to get a good list of sub-sections going for us to work on. I agree with your idea, but I was also thinking of placing it under the sub-section of "signalling pathways". However, maybe it would be possible to have a sub-sub section beneath that as "cell growth" or "current research", depending on the range of signalling pathways involved with the beta-cell. I found this article;, which may provide a basis for cell signalling, which can then be followed by the sub-sub section of cell growth, where we can then include the research found on signalling factors involved within this; calcineurin/NFAT. I think there will be many other research articles explicitly looking into treatment and current research exploring new possibilities which can be used for the sub-section of "current research", such as the article I used above suggesting the use of an RA index as a biomarker for people at risk of type 2 diabetes. What do you two think? Z5076777

Hey Guys, im not 100% on how to do the referencing so im leaving it as websites under the tab for now and hopefully we can edit and fix that up later Z5061522

  • Hey, that's alright, we'll definitely meet in person when we have all the information up to sort out formatting and references. Z5076777

Hey guys, i'll contact you all on FB discussion group soon but thought i'd write it up here too. I've done a decent amount of work on Intro/structure and have also added a table into history and some words into the glossary. I have 3 images i'd like to put into my text and tried to upload it but somehow it didnt work. I'll be doing more on structure tonight and hope to do stuff on function throughout this week. Let me know if you guys would like me to change anything! Lets keep contributing and making progress :) Z5061522

  • Thank you for finding the table coding for the history, I've expanded the table and added all the information with referencing, If you think there needs to be anything else added to the table please let me know. I've helped you put up the images like I said on the facebook discussion so if you need any more help with that feel free to let me know here or there. Also I've added to the sections on treatments and diseases, if you two had any other ideas for the sections please let me know. :) Z5076777

Hey guys so I had a read through the peer reviews and thought I'd make a list of things that we might need to work on:

- Addition of a current research sub-heading (I'm more than happy to take this section on if both of you have your hands full with the other sections, or we can all make one contribution each under current research)

- A collapsible table for the glossary section

- Spreading the information under structure out into separate sub-sub headings (and I was also thinking maybe we could do a summary table as we discussed in person)

- Fixing images and video up to include captions as well as the proper copyright information

- Including more images where possible to break up the text

I think that's basically the overall consensus every one felt over our project, but otherwise we received fairly positive feedback on the project so good job guys :) Z5076777

Peer Assessment

Group 3 (Beta Cells)

Positive - (1) Good use of image in the introduction. (2) excellent referencing throughout as it shows good extent of research. (3) History table is well organized and correctly cited. (4) great heading “similarities and differences between the structure of the pancreas and beta cells in human and mice.” a diagram or histological slide related to this would be helpful to compare and contrast between the two. Negative/suggestion - (1) Structure section is nicely organized and presented, however it does lack a bit of referencing throughout. (2) Desmosomes could potentially appear in the glossary and defined. (3) references list format (4) glossary could be organized into a table. Overall, great progress so far with research. The amount of headings is nicely controlled and only shows the key concepts. However, it would be nice to have a “current research’ heading to show where research is heading towards related to beta cells and what have people discovered so far. Excellent progress with typing the passages up however, a referencing throughout seem to be something to work on. The references list seem to be of a different format.

Group 3 -Beta Cells

There is a good amount of sub headings – although these could have subheadings within, in order to make it easier for the reader to find information? The images that have been used so far are good; I especially like the Beta-Cell destruction image. The introduction is a helpful overview of the islets of Langerhans although could introduce the Beta cells in slightly more detail? I think the information in the ‘Role in Disease’ sub topic is good and you have outlined Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes well, one way in which you could improve this section is you could make an image of the different stages of Type 2 Diabetes meaning less text and an easy to understand/view image. Function, Development and signalling could do with more information but I’m sure this is just due to time, although the points that you have outlined in each sub heading here is good. A suggestion for a sub topic to add is current research? You could link this to the treatments. Overall though, each sub topic seems to have some information and images used so far are good.

Group 3 (Beta Cells)

The introduction is excellent – it gives an overview of the entire pancreas and relevance of the organ. The history section is organised really nicely. The structure section is also very well done. Comparison of mouse and human pancreatic structure is a great addition. The notes under your function, development and signalling sub-headings seem like great points to discuss. This may be changed towards the end but “what would happen without beta cell function” could be included under the “Role in Disease” section (which it already is). The disease section is excellent. There is adequate coverage of the processes that contribute to both types of diabetes. The video and image are relevant and link back to your content directly. Including treatments, especially the stem cell information, complements the disease section well. Another sub-heading for the future of beta-cell research or unanswered questions could be a good addition. Overall, the content on this page isn’t too complicated and easy to understand.

Group 3 (Beta Cells)

Clearly there has been some steady research that has gone into the project thus far. The headings are appropriate, and although there is obviously some content missing I think it's a great start. I like the addition of a glossary, but if it gets too large perhaps consider putting it into a collapsable format so it doesn't get too long or dominate the page. Additionally, perhaps consider making the embedded video slightly larger- I feel this would ease use for page-visitors. The Structure subsection, including the part about the similarities/differences between mice and human beta cells has very few references, so this may need some attention. I like the images used, but do feel that it could benefit from some more- not only does it visually break-up the paragraphs of text, but are also a great way of summarising the ideas you're talking about. There is A LOT of research out there about beta cells and diabetes, so perhaps a section on some current research beyond stem cells could be beneficial for your page. This being said, I think it's an excellent start!

Group 3 (Beta Cells)

Everything is very well organized. A reasonable amount of research has been done on the ‘Structure’ subheading considering that ample information has been provided including the similarities and differences of the structures both in humans and mice. A good diagram has also been included to explain beta cell destruction which is definitly relevant to the content. However, I noticed there are some sections done without referencing them. Other than that, the first image on the page does not have proper copyright information. I believe that copyright information has to be completed when the image is being uploaded. The contents of each section are clear except for ‘Function’, ‘Development’ and ‘Signalling’ which seem to be lacking content. However, a brief list has been done under each subheading, which indicates a great start towards the content. It is really good that the treatments mentioned include both human tissue and also embryonic pig tissue. It indicates that the option of treatments is not limited to only human tissue. This group definitely has put in effort considering the amount of information provided on the page. Overall, relevant contents on the page, good flow from one subheading to another subheading therefore it is very easy to follow.

Group 3 peer review

At first glance your project seems very organised and neat, it is appealing to read. The introduction section is very extensive and gives a very detailed and informative description of beta cells. I can also see you guys discussing and helping each other, which is great. I loved the table for the history section, it is well layed out and has useful information. The structure information and mice comparison headings are super detailed and useful. I would recommend maybe breaking the text up into smaller paragraphs or use sub headings because it is a big block of text. Also more images would make it more eye catching. The function, development and signaling information is brief, but it is a good start and just needs to be drawn-out. The role in disease section and treatments heading were very well done. The collapsible video is a nice addition; a description of the video would be useful. The information is detailed and well referenced. The subheadings made it easy to follow. Good use of referencing, you have clearly done lots of research. Overall, well done you guys have progressed well. Most of the headings are almost done, I would recommend including more images under all the headings.

Group 3 beta cell peer review:

Project looks very well orgainsed and contains very much details. Introduction is very clear to the topic. reference 1 is reviewed article, but there is mention about reviewed article in the paragraph. History part is well organized and very easy to read and understand. Opening from introduction, history, structure is very easy to read and follow the topic. the figure and the video are heling understanding the topic. it has proper title and references.

However, some figure needs reference and title. Structure part is very detailed, so it might help when it breaks into few sub-headings such as receptor, morphology, location and etc. glossary part may easy to read when It is in the table. So far group 3 put a lot of work and contents. Little bit of editing would make project look

Group 3 All the headings and subheadings look suitable. It looks like a lot of work had been processed and each heading is well supported with good content and pictures. The use of table in History section looks very nice as it is easy to look at. However, sections such as Structure can be touched little bit in a way it is easier to read at. I think the each paragraph is too long. Sections Function, Development and signalling will need more information and organised into sentences and paragraphs. Proper referencing and citation will have to done at the end, before finalising the website. Overall, after adding little bit more information into some of the headings, this project will look great

Group 3

The introduction is well thought out and presented. It extensively covers the background of beta cells. Whilst the inclusion of a picture is good, it would be helpful to have it labelled to understand what is shown. The history section is formatted well, the use of a table structures the events in an easily understandable layout. The structure section has been researched extensively, which is shown by the amount of content available. Again, the addition of a photo assists with understanding the text, however, if it were labelled it would be easier to understand what is what, or if not labelled, perhaps referring to the image within the text. A comparison between mice and human structure is covered well. Function, development and signalling, whilst not completed, shows that it is known what is to be included, and this covers the section. The role in disease has been described extensively and the use of a video is engaging. This section could include more about current research, or even lead into a s section on current research. The glossary is a useful tool, and I have noticed that a note has been made it alphabetise this section which is good. Perhaps consider even putting it into a table format to structure the section better. From what is completed so far, there seems to be a good understanding of beta cells.