Talk:2014 Group 4 Project

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2014 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4

  1. Do not remove this notice {{2014 Project discussion}} from the top of the discussion page.
  2. Newest student comments should be entered at the top of this current page under the subheading "Student Discussion Area" (you cannot edit the sub-heading title).
  3. All comments should begin with your own signature button, that will automatically enter student number date/time stamp.
  4. Do not use your full name here in discussion, if absolutely necessary you may use first names only.
  5. Do not remove or edit other student comments.
  6. Use sub-headings if you want to add other draft information, images, references, etc.
  7. Only your own group members should edit this page, unless directed otherwise by the course co-ordinator.

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

17 April 2014

Before the next practical class (after the mid-semester break) the following items must be completed:

  1. You have written draft text in the section(s) that you have been assigned by your group.
  2. Your text should include source references clearly identifying original research from review articles.
  3. Your section(s) must include at least one research/review image or student drawn image related to the section topic.
  4. You have clearly identified the work you have contributed on the project discussion page.

Projects will be presented by your group to the rest of the class at the beginning of the next practical.

--Z3372830 (talk) 16:50, 20 March 2014 (EST)

--Z3378012 (talk) 17:01, 20 March 2014 (EST)

--Z3374039 (talk) 15:33, 26 March 2014 (EST)

--Z3374039 (talk) 16:53, 20 March 2014 (EST)

--Z3372830 (talk) 16:57, 20 March 2014 (EST)

--Z3375263 (talk) 16:32, 3 April 2014 (EST)




<mediaplayer></mediaplayer> This simple video provides a great visual introduction to axonal transport without delving into the specifics of mechanisms, cargo and types of rate components. Cargo can clearly be seen traveling along the axon in both directions

<mediaplayer></mediaplayer> This video demonstrates the fast axonal transport within the axon of a giant squid via video-enhanced contrast-differential interference contrast microscopy. Transport of membranous materials can be seen moving in both anterograde and retrograde directions with little to no frequent pauses.

<mediaplayer></mediaplayer> The complex movement of mitochondrial transport: many frequent pauses with bidirectional movement

<mediaplayer></mediaplayer> This video shows slow axonal transport responding to neuron growth - delivering newly synthesised cytoskeletal polymers to adapt to the changes in length.

Kinesin "Walking" Along A Microtubule <mediaplayer></mediaplayer>

Dynein Movment Along a Motor Protein <mediaplayer></mediaplayer>

Unraveling the Mystery of Alzheimer's Disease <mediaplayer></mediaplayer>

Alzheimer’s Disease: 3D Health Animation <mediaplayer></mediaplayer>

Four Articles

--Z3378012 (talk) 18:03, 3 April 2014 (EST)

Lab 3 Individual Assessment

Mechanism of axonal transport: a proposed role for calcium ions[1]


A good article as to the introduction of the mechanisms for axonal transport. Macromolecules and organelles are transported in a systems known as axonal or dendritic transport. This study looked at transport of protein in a calcium free medium to conclude that calcium plays a role in the initiation of axonal transport.

Relation of somal lipid synthesis to the fast axonal transport of protein and lipid[2]

Science Direct

This study inhibited phospholipid synthesis in dorsal root ganglia to show a decreased proportional effect on amount of protein undergoing fast axonal transport. Exposing an unmyelinated nerve trunk to a certain cation had no effect on protein translocation. This helps conclude that phospholipid synthesis is not required to maintain ongoing transport in the axon. Inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the ganglia also resulted in depression of protein transport. So both phospholipid and cholesterol are required at the level of the ganglion. Drawing from these results they suggested that the initiation of fast axonal transport of protein is dependent on the assembly of lipoprotein structures in the soma.

Axonal transport of microtubules: the long and short of it[3]


Specific to the transport of microtubules. The study proposes a model as to how microtubules are transported within the axon, which they term 'cut and run'. Longer microtubules are mobilized by enzymes that sever them into shorter mobile polymers. Previous studies have already shown that microtubules are transported down the axon in the form of these short polymers. The shorter microtubules are transported via cytoplasmic dynein by generating forces against the actin cytoskeleton. This was one mechanism thought to be transporting shorter microtubules after they were 'cut'. The study then talks about what mechanisms organise the longer microtubules to be then cut and transported.

Molecular motors and mechanisms of directional transport in neurons[4]


This article studies the role of motor proteins in directional axonal and dendritic transport and the mechanisms associated with them. As a basis, motors proteins seem to recognise cargoes of mRNAs and large protein–RNA complexes through adaptor complexes or scaffolding proteins. Motors can intrinsically distinguish between axons and dendrites, perhaps as a result of cues from microtubules.


Information on Slow vs. Fast Axonal Transport and Other Potential Sub-Headings:

Article One

Cold Induces Micro- and Nano-Scale Reorganization of Lipid Raft Markers at Mounds of T-cell Membrane Fluctuations

This article investigates the genetics analysis of long-distance axonal transport between the synaptic terminal and the cell body. It provides an insight into the mutations of the axonal transport system and provides links between axonal transport and human neurodegenarative disease. Most significantly, it gives an overview of the basic features of the axonal transport system. It distinguishes the two different types of transport as being either fast or slow determining fast axonal transport occurs in the retrograde and anterograde directions at a rate of 0.5-10 μm/sec and includes the transport of membrane bound organelles. Further studies identified slow axonal transport occurring only in the anterograde direction at a rate of 0.01-0.001 μm/sec and includes cytoskeletal components. <pubmed>17009871</pubmed>

Article Two

Microtubule-Based Transport Systems in Neurons: The Roles of Kinesins and Dyneins

This articles identifies the functions of the motor proteins, kinesins and dynenins in neuronal cells. It investigates transport systems in nonneuronal cells, features of the neuronal transport system, axonal transport, dendritic transport and specialised transport pathways in sensory neurons. In particular, it explores the diverse movements of transport mechanisms depending on the activity of the binding site and the motor. A major focus of the article is on kinesin and dynein and their effect on anterograde and retrograde movement. It finds kinesin is activated when dynein is inhibited leading to anterograde movement and vice versa. The balance of these two proteins controls direction of transport. <pubmed>10845058</pubmed>

Article Three

Cooperation Between Microtubule and Actin-Based Motor Proteins

Part of this article investigate transport in neurons, in particular axonal transport. It identifies that axonal transport, previously thought to have been solely microtubule based, instead involves different balance of cooperative interactions between two system. These would involved class V myosin as well as kinesin and dyenin. Both microtubule and actin based motors are also expected to interact with neuronal mitochondria. The information also provides a brief history of how research and findings regarding neuronal transport has developed over the years and different experiments involving mice and sea urchins neuronal transport and the effect of using different systems to inhibit or administer neuronal transport. <pubmed>10611957</pubmed>

Article Four

Axonal Transport Versus Dendritic Transport

This article investigates axonal and dendritic transport, in particular the regulation of motors, cargo binding mechanism of motor molecules, the polarity of motor molecules in axons and dendrites, the polarised recognition of motor domains and the instability of transport machinery. It finds neurons have polarised processes essential for functioning. It recognises dendritic and axonal transport of molecules depends on scaffolding proteins that are recognised by molecular motors. It finds modifications of tubulin can influence morphogenic processes as well as acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation of histone proteins can result in differences in transcription, tublin proteins, binding of MAPs to microtubules. This research has widened possibilities to investigate the polarity of neuronal structure. <pubmed>14704952</pubmed>

Expression of NDRG1 in Cytoplasmic Membranes.[5]

The Effect of Kinesin Channel on Anterograde and Retrograde Transport in Neurons

Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.
  1. <pubmed>47182</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>6155973</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>16643272</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>15711600</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>20694152</pubmed>

Hey guys so we are having difficulties deciding what exactly to write about neuron somas to processes. So for my four reference papers I decided to research the mechanism of transport from the neuron soma to axons and see what potentials we could possible write about for this process.

1) Select 4 reference papers related to your selected topic sub-section. Read these papers and write a brief description of their findings and relevance to the selected topic sub-section. The reference along with your description should then be pasted on both your group discussion page and your own personal page.

1. Article 1 - Sharpness of Spike Initiation in Neurons Explained by Compartmentalization, Romain Brette (2013) This first article discusses spike initiation in the axons initial segment. The results support the researcher’s theory that high frequency signals from cortical neurons can be explained by a compartmentalisation of spike initiation. I however used this article as it provides a fantastic description of action potentials, Na channels and provides a great understanding of the initial neuron soma to axon process. <pubmed>24339755</pubmed>

2. Article 2 - Laser-Based Single-Axon Transection for High-Content Axon Injury and Regeneration Studies. Kunik et al, (2011) The second article investigates regenerative responses of neurons to axonal injury. "The results showed cells that were capable of repair or regrowth of damaged axons migrated more slowly than cells that could not. Moreover, cells with long axons could not recover their injured axons, and such cells were much more motile." [1] I have used this article as it provides an understanding of future studies into potential cures for neuronal dysfunction disorders such as Alzheimers diseases, multiple sclerosis, trauma, glaucoma and peripheral neuropathies. <pubmed>22073205</pubmed>

3. Impaired Function of HDAC6 Slows Down Axonal Growth and Interferes with Axon Initial Segment Development. Tapia et al, (2010) My third article examines the effects of HDAC6 on tubulin deacetylase in the distal region of the axon and it’s effects in reducing axonal length. This article provides an understanding of the development of morphological neuronal polarity starts by the formation and elongation of an axon. Furthers the study of structural and functional proteins which contribute the neuronal action potential. <pubmed>20886111</pubmed>

4. Automated and Accurate Detection of Soma Location and Surface Morphology in Large-Scale 3D Neuron Images. Yan et al, (2013) My final article observes automated and accurate localization and morphometry of somas in 3D neuron images which are essential for quantitative studies of neural networks in the brain. The researcher’s method for locating the neuron somas reveal the soma distributions in large-scale neural networks more efficiently. This is an extremely useful study as this method for soma surface detection will serve as a valuable tool for systematic studies of neuron types based on neuron structure. The study also provides a greater understanding of previous, current and future techniques that are used to image neuron somas. <pubmed>23638117</pubmed> --Z3372830 (talk) 16:43, 3 April 2014 (EST)

Fast Axonal Transport

Role of calcium in axonal transport

Development of the soma of a neuron without calcium will reduce the amount (but not the speed) of fast axonal transport of [3H] protein. Protein synthesis and energy metabolism will remain unaffected, but there will be less proteins to be used for axonal transport. Therefore, in order to generally increase the amount of proteins for axonal transport in calcium free somas, selected proteins are transported from their original polysomal sites of syntehsis to the transport system for an initiation phase of fast axonal transport. [2]

Role of somal lipid synthesis in fast axonal transport

Initiation of fast axonal transport of protein is dependent on the presence and distribution of lipoprotein structures in the soma. In this study, inhibition of phosopholipid synthesis was directly proportional to the decrease in the amount of [3H] protein in the process of fast axonal transport. The lipid undergoing fast transport in the axon was unaffected by the inhibition of somal phospholipid synthesis, but the reduced amount of lipoproteins indicated its effect on the initiation (not ongoing) process of fast axonal transport. [3]

Mediation of axonal transport

Fast transport is a type of microtubule-based mechanism of bidirectional movement of membranous organelles. Highly significant to fast axonal transport of individual cellular cargo along the microtubules is the motor-protein kinesin. Level of regulation of organelles and motor-proteins will determine the rate of axonal transport. [4]

Effect of a pressure barrier on fast anterograde axonal transport

A pressure barrier was applied to a small part of the nerve, with maximal pressure and gradients on each side of the maximum pressure (between 16-45 mmHg). This study indicated that the range of maximal pressure has a significant impact on the inhibition of axonal transport, but the pressure gradient insignificantly impacted the inhibition. Therefore, the results convey that at least one part of fast anterograde axoplasmic transport is functioning within collapsible canalicular structures. [5]

  1. <pubmed>22073205</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>6157571</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>6155973</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>2479151</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>6158830</pubmed>


--Z3372830 (talk) 12:52, 10 April 2014 (EST)

Identify an antibody that can been used in your group's transport project. Identify the species deriving the antibody. Identify the working concentration for the antibody.

- A mouse monoclonal anti-βIII tubulin antibody (1:2000; Promega UK, Southampton, UK

Identify a secondary antibody that could be used with this antibody.

- Alexa Fluor-488 conjugated goat anti-mouse secondary antibody (1:1000, Invitrogen Inc.

Identify a paper that has used this antibody.



In the nervous system there is a "closed loop" system of sensation, decision, and reactions. This process is carried out through the activity of afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons.

Afferent neurons

• Relay information from tissues and organs to the central nervous system (CNS)

• Also referred to as sensory neurons

• Strict selectors of polarity that can re-establish synapses with identically oriented targets during hair-cell regeneration [1]

Stimulus is required to initiate the afferent pathway. A stimulus, which exceeds the cells threshold, generates a sensation and reaction neurologically. “Afferent neurons are pseudounipolar neurons that have a single long axon with a short central and a long peripheral branch. These cells lack dendrites.” [2] Pseudounipolar neurons have a smooth and rounded cell body which are located outside the spinal cord in afferent neuronal cell bodies and are accumulated swellings of the dorsal root referred to as the dorsal root ganglion. [3]

The afferent neurons somas are situated in the peripheral nervous system and their axons fibres lie in the ganglia and are distributed from ganglion to ganglion which return to the spinal cord. The majority of these neurons are unipolar, due to the presence of a single axon exiting the cell body which terminates in the sensory organ. The axons situated in the dorsal root, contain afferent nerve fibres which contribute to the transduction of somatosensory information. [4]

Somatosensory (Somatic sensory) receptors include:

• Temperature

• Pain

• Touch

• Itches

• Stretches

All sensations conduct on the same pathway, commencing from the dorsal root ganglion synapsing to the spinal cord. Travel anteriorly from the spinal cord to the medulla, eventuating into the medial lemniscus of the midbrain. Once in the medial lemniscus it actions to the primary somatosensory cortex of the parietal lobe.

Types and functions


Mechanoreceptors are specialized receptor cell that encapsulate afferent fibres and allows them to discriminate between diverse somatic stimuli. Mechanoreceptors also assist in lowering thresholds for action potential generation in afferent fibres and thus increasing their chance to fire in the presence of sensory stimulation.


Specific type of mechanoreceptors which literally means "receptors for self." Proprioceptors originate from afferent fibres in the inner ear (dictate motion and orientation) and stretch receptors of surrounding joint supporting ligament structure (assist in stance). [5] Also referred to as adequate stimuli receptors they relay spatial information about limbs and other parts of the body. [6] In humans the proprioceptor ion is yet to be determined, however TRPN, a transient receptor potential family of ions has been discovered to be responsible for proprioception in fruit flies, African clawed frogs, nematode worms and zebrafish. In particular in zebrafish reactions to different somatic sensory stimulus has been observed to demonstrate “each neuron forms synapses with hair cells of identical orientation to divide the neuromast into functional planar-polarity compartments.[7]

Although a proprioceptor has not been discovered in humans there are two distinct types of proprioception. These are conscious proprioception and unconscious proprioception. Apart from functional variances they also differ due to their neurological processors in the brain

• Conscious proprioception – pathway communicated by the posterior column-medial lemniscus to the cerebrum.

• Unconscious proprioception – pathway communicated principally by the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and the ventral spinocerebellar tract to the cerebellum. Either a reflex or righting reflex reaction is evident. The body will make adjustments if for example the body tilts and changes direction, a person will move their head so that eye level remains on the horizon. The bodies balance is controlled by the cerebellum [8]


Specialised receptors responsible for processing pain and temperature changes. They are triggered once high thresholds are exceeded and determined from thermal, mechanical or chemical environments. There are two different types of axons found in nociceptors:

Firstly an Aδ fibre, or an A delta fibre:

o Thinly myelinated

o Allow an action potential to travel at a rate of about 20 meters/second towards the central nervous system.[9]

o General respond to cold and pressure stimuli

o Activation of these fibres are interpreted as ‘fast/first’ pain

o Fibres terminate at the rexed laminae I and V [10]

Secondly the C fibre:

o Unmyelinated

o Small diameter

o Much slower conducting at a rate of 2 metres/second

o Include postganglionic fibres in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and nerve fibres from the dorsal roots (IV fibre)

o Vast pathway depending on which second-order projection neuron is triggered in the upper laminae of the dorsal horn in the substantia gelatinosa [11]

o Three types of second projection neurons are classified by their response to differing mechanical stimuli and include high threshold (HT), low threshold (LT),and wide dynamic range (WDR)

o Synapses ascend contralaterally to the brain stem and thalamus in the ventrolateral, or anterolateral, quadrant of the contralateral half of the spinal cord, forming the spinothalamic tract [12]


Visual receptors

Auditory receptors

Efferent Neuron



• Lack sufficient information in the introduction at this stage. Different types of neurons shouldn’t really be mentioned unless the transport mechanisms in these neurons differ from each other. If they are very similar, it should be generalised

• Good overview of the Fast and Slow transport; would be helpful to add diagrams to help explain the 'Stop and Go' model

Motor proteins

• Good use of a table to compare kinesins and dyeins; however, diagrams would be very helpful

• Abbreviations should be explained so readers will know what they are reading about, for example, KIF1A and KIF1Bβ

• Still lacks a lot of information underneath quite a few headings, but it seems as though you guys are heading on the right track

• Images are present at the bottom of the page, but they would be more helpful if they were formatted to be underneath their corresponding heading


• two particular references in the list was referenced incorrectly so it doesn't show up properly

Overall, the lack of information makes it slightly hard to give more constructive feedback, however, from the headings and subheadings, with dot points underneath show that there was consideration put into what information was to be written there and so far, the guidelines seem straightforward enough.

Group 4

Fast and Slow Transport

A good description on fast and slow transport. Can be expanded on immensely on to the mechanisms and possibly the proteins involved with both fast and slow transport.

- General improvements:

o A lot of text is needed in this area.

o Needs to be structured in paragraphs rather than dot points.

o Images are greatly needed.


Informative text that is relevant to the project, although it is severely lacking in images.

- General Improvements:

o Needs images

o A glossary would be handy for all the acronyms used.


There is not enough information to come to a relevant conclusion on how much I understood on Neuronal transport. I suggest that you start working on the Fast and Slow transport focusing on specific proteins that are needed and the mechanisms for transport, as well as supporting images to the information you provided. A lot of text is missing here to come to a consensus on how good your structure and information are.

Group 4: -The introduction lacked information. The mechanisms are basically the same, so not sure if there is a need to individualise the various transports. -The transports were well written, just an image/diagram would help visualise the mechanisms involved. -The table for the proteins were an added benefit for the reader. -Before the use of short hand names, the name should be introduced so the reader is aware of the actual name of the product. -More information should be used to explain the headings involved. -Images need to be spread amongst the project page and not centralised at the bottom. Therefore some of the images actually correlate to above headings but are at the bottom of the page where there is no correlation. -In the referencing there were a few mistakes with putting in the right format. -I think overall, this project needs to add a fair amount of information, better format with more headings and subheadings. I think they are on the right track for a good project.

--- --Z3420257 (talk) 13:21, 15 May 2014 (EST)

As an overall, the page lacks content. Major research needs to be done but this is understandable as you had to redo the whole page. It lacks in areas such as photos, content etc. I think the outline of the page is quite good. You just need to plug in the information.

Group 4 peer-review – neuron some to processes

Many sections are missing. i.e. mechanisms, dendric transport, diseases, or need more detail.

Please include more images (at least one for each section) sine there is only 1 photo.

Many of the headings are not enlarged or in bold such as "different types of nuerons"

There is a citation error in your referencing please fix this.

The fast and slow transport model is difficult to understand.

Nice table by the way on motor proteins. I also liked the description of the 2 model on kinesin movement. However it would be great if there were images to complement these models.

In addition, the intro does not describe the neuron processes. Please provide a brief description about this structure.

It would be great if there was a glossary of terms and abbreviation.

Sorry I cannot provide a good enough review because this project is really incomplete.

However, the referencing looks really good and the description of Motor proteins is the best part of the project.

Thanks and good luck.

--Z3375490 (talk) 14:45, 15 May 2014 (EST)

Group 4 Peer-Review --Z3399239 (talk) 14:51, 15 May 2014 (EST)

Introduction: No references or images. Looks as if still a work in progress.

Fast and Slow Transport: Bullet points of basic information. Good references. Accessible information. Also a work in progress.

Motor Proteins: Good use of table to show differences between Kinesins and Dyneins (misspelled in table). Good references. Good description of role of different kinesins. Good outline of kinesins and dyneins. Informative and accessible diagram. Promising section of the project. Good work!

Overall: Some development of concepts beyond lecture material. The Motor proteins sections looks good though could use a few more illustrations. Generally still needs more information/diagrams and content. Reference list for certain parts are good. Relatively accessible information in the Fast and Slow Transport sub-heading. Use for the images next to reference list?


Group 4:

- Most of the sections seem to be lacking information. The use of dot-points in the ‘fast and slow transport’ should be changed to paragraph form with more flow that could improve readability.

- There should definitely be more images along with the text which can explain certain processes.

- The kinesin section seems well constructed which is easy to read and more professional.

- I am impressed with the table form which is seen under motor proteins as it makes it easier to differentiate between the two motor proteins.

- There seems to be errors in the referencing which I suggest you guys should fix as soon as possible.

- There should also be a glossary list.

Peer Feedback

-the addition of images would make the processes you are describing much more clear

-the content lacks transitional phrases and thus reads very “choppy”; try to make it flow and all connect

-the points relating to transport from neuron soma to processes are not well defined, instead of defining everything about kinesin focus more on the actual processes of transport

-when you all were presenting it was pointed out that your content was moving in the wrong direction so it is difficult to give details about the body of your project but you still have a lot of time to make it work ☺ best of luck!

--Z3420257 (talk) 12:02, 21 May 2014 (EST) Just based on the outline at the very beginning of the Wiki, I think you have chosen good topic headings and subtopics. I think as whole, this will help the page flow well. In the introduction, I think you should include a brief description of the topic, as well as a breakdown of the subtopics to aid in the understanding and the flow of the page. You should also add a photo of a neuron. Any visuals you might be able to add should be included. I think it is good that you added the section describing the difference between the two modes of transport – as well as other comparative sections in your page. You can keep this section short and brief, as details may be covered in the succeeding topics.

The good thing about the way you have outlined everything is that it is clear and precise. You also made use of a table in the section comparing kinesin and dynein. You may possibly add more sections to it to compare, as well as include a photo.

As much of the research has yet to be uploaded, I can only give a general feedback which is as follows: 1. Add more content 2. make sure you include your references 3. do not forget to add photos/any visual tools, maybe a video would be a good addition 4. add a glossary to the page

I think you will do well if you continue to write the Wiki as you have doing, with the use of bullet points. This always makes things easier to understand. Your Wiki has so far been written in a fashion easily understood by your peers – especially those who have no background knowledge of the topic. You basically need to just fill in the sections which have not been filled as yet.

Hey guys I've posted everything I've done so far. It's not finished but I thought I'd put it up now so we can all keep track of the project. All my references aren't up yet because it got too clustered and messy on my word document, so I'll finish that before we submit it. --Z3374039 (talk) 22:44, 24 May 2014 (EST)

  1. <pubmed>19223970</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>19223970</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>19223970</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>16404144</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>19581378</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>11473320</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>19223970</pubmed>
  8. <pubmed>11473320</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>9848092</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed>1983703</pubmed>
  11. <pubmed>16932531</pubmed>
  12. <pubmed>16932531</pubmed>