Talk:2014 Group 1 Project

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2014 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4

  1. Do not remove this notice {{2014 Project discussion}} from the top of the discussion page.
  2. Newest student comments should be entered at the top of this current page under the subheading "Student Discussion Area" (you cannot edit the sub-heading title).
  3. All comments should begin with your own signature button, that will automatically enter student number date/time stamp.
  4. Do not use your full name here in discussion, if absolutely necessary you may use first names only.
  5. Do not remove or edit other student comments.
  6. Use sub-headings if you want to add other draft information, images, references, etc.
  7. Only your own group members should edit this page, unless directed otherwise by the course co-ordinator.

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.


Contents

17 April 2014

Before the next practical class (after the mid-semester break) the following items must be completed:

  1. You have written draft text in the section(s) that you have been assigned by your group.
  2. Your text should include source references clearly identifying original research from review articles.
  3. Your section(s) must include at least one research/review image or student drawn image related to the section topic.
  4. You have clearly identified the work you have contributed on the project discussion page.

Projects will be presented by your group to the rest of the class at the beginning of the next practical.


--Mark Hill (talk) 16:49, 20 March 2014 (EST) --Z3399239 (talk) 16:49, 20 March 2014 (EST) --Z3420257 (talk) 16:49, 20 March 2014 (EST) --Z3373930 (talk) 16:50, 20 March 2014 (EST) --Z3375490 (talk) 23:35, 3 April 2014 (EST)


Project Assessment

--Z3375490 (talk) 08:59, 15 June 2014 (EST) Hi Mark, I have edited the copyright the for the Trigger_and_Zipper_Mechanism.jpg. Also, to my team we just need to add in: the copyright. (e.g. @2010 Masters et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.)

and

Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.


--Mark Hill (talk) 16:42, 12 June 2014 (EST) If I have not received student evidence for the files indicated below, they will be deleted.

Images

Media

<mediaplayer>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7VQU28itVVw</mediaplayer>

Outline of Phagocytosis[1]

<mediaplayer>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yicmRt1lQDs</mediaplayer>

Neutrophils engulfing bacteria[2]


<mediaplayer>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYXn2FhVVGM</mediaplayer>

Outline of FcR related phagocytosis [1]

<mediaplayer>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNh5A0gtuLE</mediaplayer>

Outline of Complement Activation[2]

Discussion

Hey guys, its getting pretty messy here so I'm gonna make a discussion tab and all "talking" matters can go here. Please sign off whenever you post so that we can tell when it was posted. Also, try to post recent stuff towards the top so its easier to catch up on recent posts. Cheers! --Z3399239 (talk) 18:28, 29 April 2014 (EST)


I believe we have been looking at this all wrong. We should not just be focusing on phagocytosis, other aspects. Here are some links: [3] [4]

Please have a read of these links and understand endocytosis. I think it is best if we also do both pinocytosis and phagocytosis. I will try to come up with some sub-topics on endocytosis and forward the ideas to Mark for approval.


Ciao a tutti, please try to utilises subheadings, for instance use subheadings for the image title, so the marker may easily navigate the image. For article titles please use smaller title, by adding extra = signs. I have noticed some of you have not added the student image label. Please do in the future for copyright purposes. --Z3375490 (talk) 23:42, 3 April 2014 (EST)

Hello dear colleagues. Is anyone else interested in doing "into the cell from the plasma membrane (Endocytosis)"? --Z3399239 (talk) 16:52, 20 March 2014 (EST)

And if not Endocytosis would anyone be interested in doing "from the trans Golgi network to the cell exterior (Exocytosis) "? --Z3399239 (talk) 12:58, 27 March 2014 (EST)

So would z3373930 research: CLIC/GEEC endocytic pathway and arf6-dependent endocytosis

and z3420257 research: flotillin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis

and z3375490 research: circular dorsal ruffles and phagocytosis

and z3399239 research: trans-endocytosis and endocytosis in general --Z3399239 (talk) 16:58, 27 March 2014 (EST)

Good afternoon fair lads and lasses. I started my research into the two pathways given to me by attempting to gauge an understanding of them which would improve my success in finding related articles. Trouble is, I can't find any clear descriptions of my types of endocytosis?!? All I can gather is that the CLIC / GEEC pathway has something to do with the protein clathrin and the clathrin vesicles (I'm sure by now you have come across these in your research as well - seems to cover most types of endocytosis). Anyway, thought I'd give u the heads up! I will continue to look for articles but they may not be as direct towards my subtypes as I would have liked. We can discuss more in person tomorrow. Peace out. --Z3373930 (talk) 15:46, 2 April 2014 (EST)


--Z3420257 (talk) 14:23, 3 April 2014 (EST)

Hi guys, a few short notes on Macropinocytosis and the Flotillin-linked pathway. The former was easy to research and there are a lot of articles featuring the topic. Most of them talked about the role of actin filaments in this pathway. On the other hand, there was barely any detailed studies on the flotillin-linked pathway. Instead, I included a study involving Clathrin. I think this might be an interesting one as there are a lot of research articles discussing its pathway.

Journal Summaries

Macropinocytosis

Cellular Entry of Ebola Virus Involves Uptake by a Macropinocytosis-Like Mechanism and Subsequent Trafficking through Early and Late Endosomes

<pubmed>20862315</pubmed> | PLoS One

Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) is studied in this publication as it posts a threat to the general public. The study mentions different methods sited previously on how the virus infects the host cell. In this particular study, Saeed et. al has established micropinocytosis as the pathway involved. The paper goes through the factors present in the pathway such as the requirement of free membrane cholesterol (lipid rafts), and the role actin filaments play in macropinosome formation, which involves a ruffle filament folding back on itself, creating a large cavity referred to as a macropinosome.

Human Cytomegalovirus Entry into Dendritic Cells Occurs via a Macropinocytosis-Like Pathway in a pH-Independent and Cholesterol-Dependent Manner

<pubmed>22496863</pubmed> | PLoS One

Supporting the findings of the study conducted by Saeed et.al, this study also demonstrates the ability of cells to engulf materials via macropinocytosis. The involvement of actin filaments was demonstrated by incorporating cytoskeleton pharmacological inhibitors, resulting in the absence of macropinocytosis. Macropinocytosis is generally observed in larger viruses rather than small ones, which have been found to enter the cell via a different form of endocytosis. As demonstrated by both articles, macropinocytosis is a good area of study as it is involved in many disease pathways, especially those of a viral nature.


Flotillin-Dependent Endocytosis

The Role of Flotillins in Regulating Aβ Production, Investigated Using Flotillin 1-/-, Flotillin 2-/- Double Knockout Mice

<pubmed>24465508</pubmed> | PLoS One

Flotillins are involved in many cell functions such as cell adhesion, signalling, cell membrane interactions and endocytosis. They generally function as adhesion proteins allowing for many cell interactions to occur. Its absence is seen to have an overall negative effect on endocytosis. While this study is not solely concentrated on flotillin’s involvement in endocytosis, it’s relevance lies in the demonstration of its role in cell-cell adhesion.

Although extensive research was conducted on this topic, there is a minimal number of sources covering the role of Flotillin in endocytosis. Any study found to have done so has seen to have lacked in depth analysis of the role it plays in endocytosis. Thus, it can be said that this topic is a good research option for future interests on endocytosis.

Roles of AP-2 in Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

<pubmed>20485680</pubmed> | PLoS One

Many studies on endocytosis demonstrate the role of clathrin and the resulting clathrin coated vesicles. This particular study demonstrates the role of the heterotetrameric chalthrin adaptor complex, which is needed for the occurrence of clathrin-related endocytosis. This study focuses on how LDL’s enter the cell via this specific pathway. The absence of AP-2 is suggested to hinder the process of endocytosis in this instance. It is, in conclusion, a very important component of the clathrin-based endocytic pathway. Although not specific to macropinocytosis, this study is able to demonstrate that there is present a number of endocytic pathways involving different proteins.


--Z3399239 (talk) 14:51, 3 April 2014 (EST)


Trans-endocytosis

Trans-endocytosis of CD47 and SHPS-1 and its role in regulation of the CD47–SHPS-1 system

<pubmed>18349073</pubmed> This article looks at trans-endocytosis of transmembrane proteins CD47 and SHPS-1. The study suggests that CD47 and SHPS-1 interaction initiates the transfer of CD47 from CD47-expressing cells to neighboring SHPS-1-expressing cells followed by the internalization of the ligand-receptor complex into the SHPS-1-expressing cells. SHPS-1 was found to undergo trans-endocytosis from SHPS-1-expressing cells to neighboring CD47-expressing cells, suggesting that trans-endocytosis of CD47 and SHPS-1 occurs bidirectionally. The study suggests that CD47 trans-endocytosis is implicated in the regulation of the CD47–SHPS-1 system.

This article is relevant to the sub-topic of trans-endocytosis as it describes the mechanism and physiological roles of endocytosis and gives a specific example of trans membrane protein trans-endocytosis.


Trans-Endocytosis of CD80 and CD86: A Molecular Basis for the Cell-Extrinsic Function of CTLA-4

<pubmed>21474713</pubmed>

Qureshi et al. (2011) investigate the cell-extrinsic mechanisms of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 is thought to be an important factor in the prevention of autoimmune disease. Trans-endocytosis of CD80 and CD86 (ligands shared by both CLTA-4 and CD28, a stimulatory receptor) inhibits co-stimulation of CD28. The study suggests trans-endocytosis as a possible cell-extrinsic model of CLTA-4 function whereby co-stimulatory ligands are removed from antigen presenting cells (APCs).

This study is relevant as it outlines a mechanism whereby trans-endocytosis is used to inhibit co-stimulation of another cell. The study also shows that trans-endocytosis can play a regulatory role in autoimmune diseases.


General Endocyctosis

β-Arrestin1 Mediates the Endocytosis and Functions of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

<pubmed>PMC3026819</pubmed>

Xie et al. (2011) investigate the effects of Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and β-Arrestin on MIF endocytosis. The study suggests that MIF utilises β-arrestin1 as a molecular scaffold to maintain integrity and specificity of signalling.

This study relates endocytosis to cytokines and chemical mediators involved regulating inflammatory and immune responses.


Jak2 is a negative regulator of ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of the growth hormone receptor

<pubmed>21347402</pubmed>

Putters et al. (2011) investigate the ability of Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) to bind to the growth hormone receptor, preventing endocytosis of growth hormone receptor (GHR). The article shows that Jak2 specifically inhibits GHR endocytosis independent of its kinase activity and Growth Hormone-induced and constitutive endocytosis undergo the same mechanism of endocytosis.

This article is relevant because it shows that both growth hormone-induced and constitutive growth hormone receptor endocytosis depend on the same factors, therefore strongly suggesting that the modes of endocytosis are similar, if not identical.


CLIC/GEEC endocytic pathway

Clathrin- and Dynamin-Independent Endocytosis of FGFR3 – Implications for Signalling

<pubmed>21779335</pubmed>

This article confirmed that the best studied endocytic mechanism is characterised by the formation of clarithin (a protein) coated pits at the plasma membrane. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR’s) that were internalised via a clarithin-mediated pathway were found to recycle back to the cell surface whereas EGFR’s that were internalised via a clarithin-independant pathway were degraded. This concluded that different endocytic pathways dictate further signalling and intracellular trafficking of their cargo.

The article is relevant because it categorised the CLIC/GEEC pathway as a clarithin-independant endocytic pathway. The article raised my awareness of the lack of information on this specific pathway. Even though many derivatives of clarithin-inependant endocytosis have been established, they are yet to be given definitive features in order to be repeatedly categorised. Therefore, further research into the subtypes of clarithin-independant pathways may prove difficult.


E3 ubiquitin ligase Pub1 is implicated in endocytosis of a GPI-anchored protein Ecm33 in fission yeast.

<pubmed>24454826</pubmed>

This study demonstrated that a GPI-anchored protein, Ecm33 is endocytosed in a Pub-1 dependant manner that is also required for the trafficking of non-GPI-anchored proteins in fission yeast. Ecm33 is important for cell wall integrity and function. Ubiquitylation was also studied but results were inconclusive in determining whether it is required for internalisation of GPI-anchored proteins. It was found however that when GPI-anchored proteins were endocytosed the main fraction of them were delivered to GEEC’s.

This article was of relevance because it defined GEEC as the acronym for GPI-anchored enriched endosomal compartment. This pathway seems to be specific for a type of protein on the cell membrane surface. Due to the similarities amongst yeast and mammalian cells, this study also provides a basis for further research into understanding the precise mechanism of endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins in higher eukaryotes.


Arf6-Dependent Endocytosis

Endocytosis of hERG Is Clathrin-Independent and Involves Arf6

<pubmed>24392021</pubmed>

hERG potassium channels are important for repolarisation of the cardiac action potential. Reduced levels of expression increases the risk of ventricular arrhytmias. The results of this study found that this channel undergoes rapid internalisation which is neither inhibited by dynamin (an inhibitor of dynasore) nor Rab5a. This suggests the endocytosis of hERG is a clarithin-independant mechanism. A GTPase deficient mutant, Arf6-Q67L was compared and contrasted on two types of cells, HeLa and H9c2. Both of these had hERG channels present on the characteristic vacuole, concluding that Arf-6 is required for endocytosis of hERG potassium channels.

This article is relevant to the subtype of Arf-6 dependant endocytosis because it explores the clinical significance when this subtype is potentially malfunctioning. It demonstrates how different cells use different signalling mechanisms for endocytosis and how this variation can effect organs at the multicellular level.


ARF6-Dependent Regulation of P2Y Receptor Traffic and Function in Human Platelets

<pubmed>22916275</pubmed>

Arf-6 proteins were found to regulate intracellular trafficking by shuffling between an active GTP-bound form and an inactive GDP-bound form. A low level of Arf-6 GTP is essential for platelet aggregation and this was deduced to be regulated depending on platelet activation by collagen. when platelets are activated, the GTP-bound form of Arf-6 rapidly converts to its GDP-bound form. Arf-6 activity was also found to be stimulated by activation of P2Y purinoreceptors. These findings deduced that Arf-6 is a regulator of platelet function by demonstrating it has a function in internalisation of P2Y purinreceptors which in turn have an effect on platelet ADP receptor function.

This article shed some light on the Arf-6 dependant pathway of endocytosis. It is clear that Arf-6 is a type of kinase signal, controlling the level of endocytosis. Seeing as this endocytic pathway is common in human platelets, it may have close associations in haemolytic pathology and this may be an interesting avenue to investigate as part of the project.

--Z3373930 (talk) 15:11, 3 April 2014 (EST)


Phagocytosis

Contemporaneous cell spreading and phagocytosis: Magneto-resistive real-time monitoring of membrane competing processes

The article ‘Contemporaneous cell spreading and phagocytosis: Magneto-resistive real-time monitoring of membrane competing processes’ by Shoshi et al investigate that during phagocytosis the cell membrane expands, to engulf particles (in this case beads on surfaces), by cell spreading. The engulfment rate was additionally measured using real-time magneto-resistive monitoring, with an average of 3 beads per minute. Correspondingly, the rate of engulfment was not a linear function but is high at an early stage, then decreases steadily until saturation.

Reference

<pubmed>22770907</pubmed>| Pubmed

Copyright

@2012 Shoshi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation: '‘Contemporaneous cell spreading and phagocytosis: Magneto-resistive real-time monitoring of membrane competing processes’ A. Shoshi, J.Schotter, P.Schroeder, M.Milnera, P.Ertl, R.Heer, G.Reiss, H.Brueckl (2012) Biosensors andBioelectronics40(2013)82–88. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.06.028. Epub 2012 Jun 23.


Rab35 Mediates Transport of Cdc42 and Rac1 to the Plasma Membrane during Phagocytosis

‘Rab35 Mediates Transport of Cdc42 and Rac1 to the Plasma Membrane during Phagocytosis’ journal, by Shim et al, put forward that a Rab GTPases, called Rab35, regulate trafficking from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm. Rab35 is a specific regulator of the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and play a role in filopodia and lamellipodia. In addition, Rab35 is essential for Cdc42 and Rac1 localization at an activated plasma membrane, when in contact with foreign particles and therefore is crucial for actin rearrangement during phagocytosis. Drosophilas were used to demonstrate the hypothesis and presence/absence of Rab35 effecting phagocytosis.

Reference

<pubmed>20065041</pubmed>| Pubmed

Copyright

@2010 Shim et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation: ‘Rab35 Mediates Transport of Cdc42 and Rac1 to the Plasma Membrane during Phagocytosis' Jaewon Shim, Sun-Min Lee, Myeong Sup Lee, Joonsun Yoon, Hee-Seok Kweon, and Young-Joon Kim (2010) Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Mar;30(6):1421-33. doi: 10.1128/MCB.01463-09. Epub 2010 Jan 11.


Plasma membrane tension orchestrates membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal remodeling, and biochemical signaling during phagocytosis

The article ‘Plasma membrane tension orchestrates membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal remodeling, and biochemical signaling during phagocytosis’ focus on the 2 phases of pseudopod extension that included actin polymerization pushing the membrane forward and increased membrane tension using high-resolution microscopy of macrophages attempting to internalize an IgG-opsonized glass surface. A 50% increase in tether force was observed in phagocytic cells, compared to the resting cells membrane tension. Additionally, inward bead movement (engulfment) and ingestion is most probably due to contraction and exocytosis activation. This confirms that membrane tension is an exocytosis activator and that exocytosis is required for phagocytosis to complete.

Reference

<pubmed>23821745</pubmed>| Pubmed

Copyright

@2013 Masters et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation: ‘Plasma membrane tension orchestrates membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal remodeling, and biochemical signaling during phagocytosis' Thomas A. Masters, Bruno Pontes, Virgile Viasnoffa, You Li, and Nils . Gauthier, (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jul 16;110(29):11875-80. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1301766110. Epub 2013 Jul 2.


Circular Dorsal Ruffles

Integrins traffic rapidly via circular dorsal ruffles and macropinocytosis during stimulated cell migration

The article ‘Integrins traffic rapidly via circular dorsal ruffles and macropinocytosis during stimulated cell migration’ presents that upon cell stimulation with platelet derived growth factor do not undergo significant endocytosis at ventral focal adhesions. Instead, it is redistributed to dorsal circular ruffles. This was assessed using 4-D confocal live-cell imaging. Additionally, integrins transit through recycling endosomal compartments to repopulate new focal adhesion on the ventral surface.

Reference

<pubmed>21464228</pubmed>| Pubmed

Copyright

@2013 Zhizhan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation: ‘Integrins traffic rapidly via circular dorsal ruffles and macropinocytosis during stimulated cell migration' Zhizhan Gu, Erika H. Noss, Victor W. Hsu, and Michael B. Brenner, (2011) The Journal of Cell Biology 2011 Apr 4;193(1):61-70. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201007003


Images

--Z3375490 (talk) 15:13, 3 April 2014 (EST)

[Macrophage pseudopod extension occurs in two phases during FcγR-mediated frustrated phagocytosis and correlates with membrane and cytoskeleton dynamics]

Pnas.1301766110fig01.jpg

Localization of human nuclear envelope proteins in Drosophila.

Polytene nuclei from salivary glands (top row z-series; middle row section) and diploid cells from imaginal discs (bottom row) were obtained from transgenic stocks and stained with antibodies specific for the human nuclear envelope proteins. All of the human proteins localized to the Drosophila nuclear envelope, with Lamin B2 showing aggregation.

Reference

<pubmed>19855837</pubmed>| PLoS ONE

Copyright

@2009 Schulze et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation: Sandra R. Schulze, Beatrice Curio-Penny, Sean Speese, George Dialynas, Diane E. Cryderman, Caitrin W. McDonough, Demet Nalbant, Melissa Petersen,Vivian Budnik,Pamela K. Geyer, Lori L. Wallrath 'A comparative study of Drosophila and human A-type lamins' PLoS ONE(2009) 4 (10):e7564. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007564.

Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.


--Z3420257 (talk) 22:24, 1 April 2014 (EST)

Insulin-DependentEndo.png

Localization of insulin receptor and caveolin-1 in endosomes by immuno-gold electron microscopy.

Isolated adipocytes were incubated with insulin at 100 nM for 10 min. Cells were then homogenized and the endosomal fraction isolated. Endosome vesicles were attached to grids, immunogold-labeled against caveolin-1 (6 nm gold particles) and the insulin receptor (15 nm gold particles), lyophilized and sputtered with a 2-nm tungsten film before examination by transmission electron microscopy. C and D are blow-ups from B; arrowheads indicate patches of caveolin-1 labeling; arrows indicate insulin receptor labeling. One experiment of three with similar results is illustrated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005985.g004

Reference

<pubmed>19543529</pubmed> | PLOS One

Copyright

© 2009 Fagerholm et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.


--Z3373930 (talk) 11:37, 3 April 2014 (EST)

px300

Image showing effects of dynamin on FGF1 internalisation.

Figure 3: The effect of dynamin 1, dynamin 1 K44A, dynamin 2 or dynamin 2 K44A expression on FGF1 internalization.

U2OS cells stably transfected with FGFR1 (A) or FGFR3 (B) were transfected with HA-tagged dynamin constructs as indicated and incubated with Cy3-FGF1 and 50 U/ml heparin at 37°C for 20 min. The cells were then fixed and stained with anti-HA antibody. The cells were examined with confocal microscopy. Bar, 5 µm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021708.g003

Reference

<pubmed>21779335</pubmed>

Copyright

© 2011 Haugsten et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.


--Z3399239 (talk) 14:22, 3 April 2014 (EST)

Uptake of MIF via CPZ sensitive endocytosis.png

Image of Uptake of MIF via CPZ sensitive endocytosis

Reference

<pubmed>PMC3026819</pubmed>

Copyright

© 2011 Xie et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.


--Z3399239 (talk) 11:31, 10 April 2014 (EST)

[5] - Junctional Adhesion Molecule 1(present in tight junctions of epithelial and endothelial cells and is involved in the regulation of junctional integrity and permeability)

Type of Antibody: Monoclonal

Species Raised in: Rabbit

Species reacts against: Reacts with Rabbit, Mouse, Human

Types of Application: Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections)

References: <pubmed>23001478</pubmed>

<pubmed>22767451</pubmed>

--Z3420257 (talk) 04:59, 30 April 2014 (EST)

Plasma Membrane

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9898/

Diseases

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/primary-disorders-of-phagocytic-function-an-overview

This lists all the diseases associated with phagocytosis, most are immunological.

I will look for associated papers so we have good sources for them.

Other relevant sources are:

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200012073432307

http://primaryimmune.org/about-primary-immunodeficiencies/specific-disease-types/chronic-granulomatous-disease-and-other-phagocytic-cell-disorders/


z340257 Feedback

Group 2

The basic outline of the project looks good. The introduction is quite brief and straight to the point – not too short nor too long. How the topics are laid out is good, it makes the page very easy to navigate. It is very important to have a page laid out in such a way that it is pleasing to the eyes, with a flow that does not confuse the reader. I can see that there are more topics to be covered such as other substances being transported into the mitochondria. This is good as I find that the overall project might just be a bit on the short side. For the dieases/current research, I find that this is the topic you can generally talk about most as there are many hypothesis out there that are very interesting and might be worth looking into. It is good that you have included a glossary (a good tip for our own page). Overall, I think that you could add a bit more information and lengthen your page, but the manner of how you have done it thus far is good!

Group 3

There is a lot of work still to be done with the page. I think there could be a better way to make the project flow a bit better. Maybe you could do this by doing a brief introduction to a subtopic. You ave included links, which is good. Photos and videos are also included. I think anything visual is very beneficial to a page as it is easier to look at for a person who is still doing basic research and just skimming through the page for the first time. It also help capture the reader attention. I think what could be done though is to move the relevant photos to the topics they are associated to. One thing I would suggest to get done soon would be your introduction and history. These could be a good source of your flow of information.

In the body, I think you can also add more current/future research topics and disease topics. They are very easy to find and tend to be very interesting as I reckon your topic would have a lot to do with genetic defects, considering it is transportation out of the nucleus. One good tip I got from another group was to add the glossary at the end. I think this is good help to the reader. Overall, a bit more research maybe and just improving the flow would really help improve your page.

Group 4

As an overall, the page lacks content. Major research needs to be done but this is understandable as you had to redo the whole page. It lacks in areas such as photos, content etc. I think the outline of the page is quite good. You just need to plug in the information.




Feedback

Introduction

• Good brief introduction of phagocytosis

• External links may need to be edited a bit and given a suitable title

Receptors

• Some abbreviations may need to be explained for example FcγRI and etc.

• Complement receptor abbreviations should be more clearer, i.e. maybe complement receptors (CRs) have various types such as C3b or C3bi

• If possible, expand more on receptors as to what their structure is

Mechanism of phagocytosis

• Definition of phagocytosis should be in the introduction, and since it already was, it doesn't need to be defined again

• When comparing two different types of models, it would be good to have 2 pictures. So having 1 picture about one model is a good start. Also, name the pictures 'Figure 1' since it is being referred to in the text as fig 1

• It also might be useful to add subheadings underneath this section .E.g. "Zipper model" and "Trigger model"

• Good detailed description of the mechanism; however, there are some bits of information that didn’t flow, for example, the sentence from Exocytosis to the next sentence of Engulfment.

• Also, some of the numbered referencing doesn’t seem to work (i.e. some were superscripted and hyperlinked but others weren’t)

Diseases

• In-text referencing numbers would be more suitable if placed right after the information rather than a sentence underneath

• Chronic granulomatous disease - how is the activity of neutrophils impaired?

• Chediak Higashi Syndrome - Maybe add a few more details like particular gene sequence if possible and a brief overview how that gene causes hyperactivity in phagocytosis

References

• Was organised quite poorly; there are 2 reference sections when there should only be one reference section at the end

• References: some of the references double up in the reference list. There should be a link on the side that helps with editing and adjusting the references so that it doesn't double up

Still a few headings that need to be filled out

Overall, good solid information presented! However, formatting could be more thoroughly edited.




Group 1

Introduction

A well structured and informative introduction into phagocytosis, clearly demonstrates a thorough understanding of the basic structure and mechanisms involved in immune response, but I would suggest talking a little bit more about its relationship to transport. And for clarity, are those references at the bottom of the introduction or external links? If they are external links, there is a way to change their link into a general description i.e. “Phagocytosis” (while still being a hyperlink) within the ‘editing basics’ link under the side bar.

- General Improvements:

o Change the general format of the external links at the bottom of the introduction heading.

o Clathrin? What is it? There is no description of what clathrin is and its function. This can be easily remedied by having a glossary heading at the bottom with its description.

o A little more info into how phagocytosis is IMPORTANT to transport within the cell.


Structure of Plasma Membrane

I don’t think this needs a separate heading and can just be included within the introduction as a sub-heading. Needs to be referenced properly.

- General Improvements:

o Change the positioning of this heading somewhere else within the text. Preferably in the Introduction

o Reference Properly.


Receptors

A great deal of detail and text needs to be added to this part of the heading. I believe this is a crucial part of the project as it refers to the binding and recognition of phagocytes to foreign bodies, and thus for transport in general. Images are needed and this heading has to be fleshed out with more references.

- General Improvements:

o Needs more text

o Needs to more references

o Needs more images


Mechanism of Phagocytosis

This heading has a great deal of detailed text, images and references that explain the mechanisms of phagocytic membrane formation around the targeted foreign body. The only downside is that it is very hard to read as it has no set structure in paragraphing and is separated every sentence. Make them into paragraphs and possibly include sub-sub headings.

- General Improvements:

o Move the references into the correct place

o Make the text into paragraphs

o Glossary is needed to understand terminology


Diseases Related to Phagocytosis

Descriptive and well thought out. Not much more is needed in this heading as it is not that relevant to the project.

- General Improvements:

o Maybe add one more disease related to phagocytosis? My personal opinion.

Current/Future Research

Expand on this topic a little bit further.

- General Improvements:

o More information related to possible future research.


References

All your references are not done properly.

- General Improvements:

o Some of your references are doubled up. Look at the ‘editing basics’ tab to learn how to fix this.

o Put all your references down here, there is too much within the bottom of the headings and needs to be put in properly at the bottom.

Overall

A lot of editing needs to be done on your project, but overall the information you provided has shown a good understanding on Phagocytotic transport. A lot of information on the mechanism of phagocytosis is good, but needs to be supported by the other sub-headings. A lot more images are needed especially in the “receptors” section, and this part can be expanded on immensely. The role and structure of actin, which is covered in “Morphological Mechanisms” can also have it’s own heading as it is an integral motor protein involved in phagocytosis. Overall, good information that just needs to be structured properly.

Group 1: -The Introduction was nice and brief and gave a good overview on phagocytosis. -The links fitted in nicely, helped outsource information. -AS I am not a scientist probably better off explaining some of the short hand names. -Receptors could be expanded upon. -Nice comparison with the 2 types of models introduced. I think this could be enhanced by a picture of each model (not just one of them), as some people are visual learners and can use the pictures to help understand. -The mechanism had good information, although some of the sentences didn’t flow. -In the disease section, the references should be placed after key information and not after. -I like the fact they had a few diseases to talk about (which gives me ideas for my project), maybe just need to go a little bit more in depth of certain activities and causes. -With the referencing, I think a lot could be improved and this would help the information and flow of the project be formatted much better. -Also one reference section at the end rather than 2. -Some references were used twice, which is fine but doubled up in the reference list for some reason.. -I think overall, this project has good information, it just needs some adjusting in the formatting and referencing departments.




Feedback

Group 1:

- The introduction seems well informed and covers many aspects about phagocytosis which can be well understood by students of a non-science background. However, it should include the link to phagocytosis to transport. Also, I’m not sure if the links under introduction are temporarily there so you can reference them properly later, however, I suggest you reference them as soon as possible. If the links are just placed there for general purposes for others to click on then I think you should make a separate subheading for ‘links’.

- As for the structure of Plasma Membrane, there seems to be enough detail to describe the structure. However, I believe there needs to be images of the plasma membrane showing the components of the lipid bilayer. The text should also be properly referenced.

- Similarly for receptors, the detail presented is adequate and understandable but there needs to be images showing the different receptors and the text should be referenced properly.

-Mechanism of Phagocytosis: this section is good as it describes how everything you’ve mentioned about phagocytosis relates to transport including the structures of plasma membrane and receptors. There are also images of the Zipper model which is useful in allowing others to understand the concept more easily. However, I suggest you reference the text correctly and include a glossary for words like pseudopods, macrophages, etc… in case non-science background students don’t understand. Also, the definition of phagocytosis shouldn’t be placed in that section but should be at the introduction instead.

- As for diseases and current research, there needs to be more information and images. There should also be more references.

Feedback 2.0

--Z3378012 (talk) 17:18, 19 May 2014 (EST)

Introduction has good structure and with knowledge of the subject is easy to read. If this is a general informative page it may be helpful to not use too much jargon.

The structure of the membrane is probably able to be put into the introduction and inserting an image would probably benefit the reader.

Receptor sections needs to have more detail about PRRs and PAMPs rather than branching into the subsections. Probably a vital part of the topic that solidifies the introduction.

Mechanism of phagocytosis has good amount of detail but seems disjointed. Better sentence structure will give this section more flow and make it easier to read. The first heading phagocytosis is probably unnecessary as this is done in the intro.

When talking about the zipper model might be worthwhile to bold the text to place emphasis on the idea.

Diseases Related to Phagocytosis and Current/Future Research subsections are great ideas that help give more information to the reader. Adding a little more to the Current/Future Research would benefit everyone greatly.

One consistent issue is the referencing throughout the project. Under each section is a huge chunk of references that make it look very disjointed and messy. Should look into referencing each sentence with the appropriate reference.

Overall a good job so far with some minor adjustment to make it even better.

Feedback 3

Group 1:

-You all are focusing on specifically phagocytosis and your topic is endocytosis. I have no idea if you have talked this over with Mark but perhaps you should briefly talk about endocytosis and the other mechanisms it includes besides phagocytosis?

-could benefit from the addition of a glossary at the end clearly defining scission, lysosome, phaolysosome, PMNs, etc.

-headings/sections could be set up in a better format

  • ‘Diseases’ and ‘Current/future Research’ sections should be integrated with the rest of the content
  • Maybe the overall mechanism of phagocytosis should be put before the more specific Receptors section

-The description under the ‘Receptors’ section gives a great overall discussion in the realm of phagocytosis. This paves the way for the sub-sections below it on specific receptor-mediated phagocytosis. This is a great idea and maybe you should add an overall discussion for your ‘Mechanism of Phagocytosis’ as well.

-phagocytosis is a really interesting action to see at the microscopic level so perhaps a video showing an antigen being eaten up would be cool! I think Mark showed us one during class if you are allowed to use that?

-some content seems to be referenced correctly but make sure all references are at the bottom and not dispersed throughout

-This project has a great foundation of information- the overall meat of phagocytosis is there but the organization of the content needs to be adjusted.



<mediaplayer>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7VQU28itVVw</mediaplayer> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7VQU28itVVw



Feedback --Z3372830 (talk) 11:24, 22 May 2014 (EST)

Well thought out and executed introduction. Summarises succinctly the main aspects of the topic. Thus far the assignment seems to have a good flow. When I was reading the introduction I noticed the two divisions of phagocytes. “Phagocytes can be divided into two groups; Professional Phagocytes (usually referring to Polymorphonucleocytes - PMNs), and Non-professional Phagocytes.” There seems to be no elaboration of these two types, perhaps this has yet to be added would be beneficial for the reader.

Appropriate use of headers, separate topics well and allow for greater ease when navigating through the page. However under mechanical mechanisms there is quite a bit of content that is clustered together. To alleviate this I would either consider listing the information, tabulating it, or even further sub dividing the headings. Such as ‘trigger model’ or ‘zipper model’. The diagrams provided are easily comprehendible. Also in the contents everything seems to be under one point “1. Phagocytosis”, changing it to something along the lines of “2.Mechanisms of Phagocytosis”, “3. Diseases”, “4. Current and future studies” etc. Although this a small cosmetic issue it would be easier to navigate through assignment.

Need for images sub heading, as an index of diagrams and figure that have been used. An addition of a glossary page would be a good idea.

Wide range of references however the set out need to be consistent. It is a little distracting although I’m sure this will be resolved before submission. Otherwise this wiki page assignment seems to be on the right track.

Feedback

Introduction is good and easy to understand. It clearly highlights the key points relating to the topic without getting into too much detail. The format of this assessment is also good. The images relate to the text which allows the reader to gain visual understanding. A highlight of this assignment is the use of headings and sub-headings, it doesn’t chunk all the information together but divides into sections to make it easier to understand. However, perhaps a table would be beneficial. Overall this assignment is heading in the right direction. The references all appear to be valid, except I think the structure of the referencing may need to be altered, unless it is just structured this way as an early draft.

  1. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7VQU28itVVw on 14th of April 2014
  2. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yicmRt1lQDs on 29 May 2014