Talk:2012 Group 6 Project

From CellBiology

Group Assessment Criteria 2012

  • The key points relating to the topic that your group was allocated are clearly described.
  • The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  • Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  • The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student’s own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  • Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  • Relates the topics and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  • Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer’s wiki.
  • Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  • The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  • Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with this sites wiki guidelines.


  • Z3284634 - 100
  • Z3291200 - 58
  • Z3333794 - 98
  • Z3333427 - 145

Total edits 403

Project page has been accessed 6,200 times.

Positive Negative
  • Reasonable structure to project.
  • Glossary.
  • Project structure and layout could have been improved.
  • Contribution from some group members.
  • 2 figures removed for copyright.
  • Some images require more supporting information. Some sections would benefit from additional explanatory figures.


  • Z3284634 - 1 image.
  • Z3291200 - 2 images.
  • Z3333794 - 2 images, including student drawn image.
  • Z3333427 - 5 images, including 2 copyright violations.

Peer Assessment

Group 6: Intro

   * Don't need subheadings, these break up the flow of what should be just a summary.
   * Good information, good overall summary of the report. 


  • Good image, just needs reference and copyright notice. Also doesn't need to be that big.


  • Should come before Structure.
  • Should be in a table.
  • Good referencing and links to Nobel prizewinners.
  • Good image of important scientist.

Insulin receptor

  • Image is good, just doesn't need to take up half the page.
  • maybe mention a little more on the alpha subunit, only has 1 sentence.

Signaling pathway

  • Lots of information, well referenced.
  • Good image, could be a thumb on the side with a caption.

Normal Function

  • Lack of information + references.
  • Sentences are a bit lengthy, could use some breaking up.

I like the introduction into each section, good standard to follow.

  • The Introduction doesn’t really need to be set out in subheadings. It feels that the information provided it too elaborate for an introduction, which should be more succinct. Look into rather introducing the topics that are going to be addressed in the project, rather than explain these. Including an image would be a good addition.
  • The section for structure of insulin is a good addition to the project. However the image hasn’t been referenced correctly and no copyright is provided. Also it is probably better to add this section directly below the History section.
  • History section is set out neatly and is easy to follow. The image used enhances the appeal of this section. On the downside it seems that some citations are missing for several key dates.
  • The heading for insulin receptor is a good addition, however I feel that this section is better conjoint with the section for the structure of insulin. Hence you will be able to demonstrate the interaction of the protein with the receptor.
  • The signalling pathway has been done fairly well. The author has established two main pathways and elaborated upon these, following the introduction. However it does feel that the introduction is too detailed. The image used is quite relevant, yet the author has failed to attach the copyright information.
  • Normal function: It feels that there is no need to include the subheading ‘introduction’ under individual headings, you can simply dive into the information. Due to the brief nature of this section, it would probably be a better idea combining this section with ‘signalling pathway’ section.
  • The section for Abnormal function contains a good load of vital information, however it is not structured very well, hence difficult to follow. It would probably be better of organising this information into a table. Furthermore including several images would make this section far more interactive.
  • Current research has been done well, however some extra citations need to be added.
  • The Glossary is a good addition, however this will certainly require more terms.
  • The Gallery is also a clever way to organise the images into a single section.
  • References seem to be done correctly.


Good and simple intro but suffers lack of research as there is only one reference. Not sure if the subheading is a good idea. Adding pictures and graphs may help make the page more interesting and catchy for the reader.

Structure of insulin

The picture lacks referencing; more information regarding the structures and properties is needed.


History is done properly with good referencing

Insulin receptors

Patchy information from everywhere, hard to follow, the picture used is not referenced.

Signalling pathway

This section is done properly, information is structured well and easy to follow and understand, picture used is not referenced.

Normal function

Needs more information, lack of referencing.

Abnormal function

Is done well but lacks referencing, use of pictures and graphs could make the page more interesting.

Current research Needs more work, not information is available at this point.

  • No heading!
  • Intro- I don’t think its necessary to write about each subsection and talk about it. Instead just talk about the insulin pathway and summarise everything into one or two paragraphs. I think this would be more effective and easier to understand and introduces us to the whole project rather than subsections cos this doesn’t make anything seem whole.
  • Structure – proof read! ‘Computer’ shouldn’t be written like this midsentence. Perhaps the structure could be pieced together inside of the introduction because it seem very brief. Possibly even reduce the side of the image into a thumbnail for easier viewing.
  • History – in 1980, 1985 and 1988 do we know who discovered these?

Insulin receptor – I don’t think this part is that necessary to put into its own subheading. Reducing of the image would be a lot nicer as well.

  • Glossary – Your glossary looks empty so please add to your glossary list, words in alphabetical order of any technical terms that someone from a non-science background may not understand.
  • I liked your images section but make sure you copy the copyright info for each image you use!

--Z3290558 09:14, 17 May 2012 (EST)

‘’’Introduction’’’ – really good intro but maybe consider putting in more citations

‘’’Structure of Insulin’’’ – like the use of picture very succinct doesn’t really need many words though very self explanatory

‘’’History’’’ – well researched maybe consider expanding on some of the experiments

‘’’Insulin receptor ‘’’– great student drawn image, very simple and easy to follow

‘’’Signaling pathway’’’ – was able to correlate the diagram with the information + correctly referenced

‘’’Normal function’’’ – very concise but I think it works, it has all the information any reader could possibly need

‘’’Abnormal function’’’ – very well researched and the information is good only thing is it’s a bit all over the place, perhaps if you actually put the definitions etc underneath the actual conditions when you list them in the beginning, I wouldn’t want to keep scrolling up and down

‘’’Current research’’’ – the Wilson research institute I think you should maybe add an external link to their website if they have one?

‘’’Overall’’’ – a lot of effort has gone into this, keep up the good work and you guys are on the way to an excellent project

•Introduction: The section showed a good overview of what is insulin, what it does, how does it lower blood sugar level and what happens when this pathway is disturbed although there is only 1 reference and i think the subheadings are unnecessary.

•Structure of Insulin: The image is not referenced properly.

•History: This section seems need further research. Only some sections had a proper reference. Also, this can be improved by adding what PI3K, IRS-1, and GSK3 (I know definitions were given towards the end at the glossary section but it wouldn't harm telling the audience what these proteins do.

•Signaling Pathway: Well written section but i think you can let go of the 'introduction' subheading.

•Normal Function: There are far too little information given in this section. It can be improved by putting more depth and having more references in this section.

•Abnormal Function: Having subheadings in this section made it easier to read. This can be improved more by linking how the signaling pathway can cause these diseases like how the group did for the Defects in the Myocardial Insulin Signaling subheading.

•Current research: This section seem to be alright but for the heading 'Wilson Research Institute' there were no references cited.

•Glossary: Far too few terminologies were defined in this section.

The group project is structurally pleasing overall. The three images used in the project complemented its section. The simple use of texts as well as use of subheadings made it easy to understand the content more clearly. Most of the criteria of the assessment is satisfied however there are a lot of room for improvement. There is no title for the project page, at first I was quite confused as to the main purpose of the project. In the introduction, there should be a paragraph to some up the entire project. In each of the section there is no need for the subheading “introduction”. In the glossary section you should have two sections; one for the abbreviation and another section for the meanings of certain terminologies. The image ‘Structure of insulin’ has no copyright information and this should be fixed immediately and Mark emphasised the importance of having this.

-Introduction: I thought that the introduction was good. I thought the outlining of the project was easy to follow but the subheadings were not really necessary. The video was a good idea. I thought the insulin was explained well and the picture was a good find, but not referenced.

-History: I thought that the history was well researched, but noit fully referenced.

-Insulin Receptor: I thought that this section was good but wasn’t well formatted because the size of the picture (not referenced).

-Signalling Pathway: I thought that this section was well presented. It was easy to read and good imagery (not referenced).

-Normal function: I thought this section was very short.

-Abnormal function: I thought this section was well done and demonstrated the research that was done. It was easy to read and well formatted.

-Current Research: I didn’t really understand what the research was about.

- I thought that overall it was a good job. It was well researched and you can see there was work. The introduction needs some work and some references on the images need to be done.

  • Introduction: Its a good introduction, however I’m not sure the use of subheadings is very appropriate here. The youtube video is a nice touch, but perhaps that should be added to the Insulin section. The link also needs a caption. The introduction is also lacking in references.
  • Structure of Insulin: This section is very short, and the image contains no copyright or reference information. I don’t particularly find the formatting of this section appealing. Maybe the image could be smaller, or changed to a thumbnail so at least there isn’t all this blank space on the page.
  • History: The history section is extensive, but some of the dates are missing references. And the external link to the Nobel Prize of Dorothy Hodgkin needs a better caption. Or if you like, add it to the end of the section as External Links: [Nobel Prize Winner]
  • Insulin Receptor: Once again, the image is too big. It breaks up the page and leaves a lot of blank space. The image info also requires a reference. Copyright information is correct.
  • Signalling Pathway: The formatting of this section is very well done with the subheadings to break up the text. The image needs copyright information.
  • Normal function: Short, any more referencing? Maybe drop the “Introduction” title!
  • Abnormal function: Well researched section and appealing layout.
  • Current Research: any reference for “Wilson Research Institute” and what they are doing?
  • Glossary: short, more could be added!
  • References: everything seems to be there, good job.

Overall I feel the sections don’t really flow, I think this could avoided if you removed the subheading “Introduction” which appears in Signalling pathway, normal and abnormal function. However, it is evident that a lot of research has been put into this page. The page is nicely formatted with the use of appropriate images. I would suggest reconsidering the size of the images and look at how it breaks up the text a little too much.

What was done Well:

  • signal pathway section was very well written. I understood the 2 different pathways by reading the text. I found it not too detailed or too long but it gave enough information for me to understand what was going on.
  • great Abnormal Function section - it linked the disease state to the abnormal function of receptor well. The set out with many subheadings made it very clear
  • Inspiring future current section too

What needs to be Improved:

  • The pictures (e.g. structure of receptor) need copyright and referencing added
  • Receptor section needs more information. I feel some of the information in signalling such as 'how the receptor is activated by ligand' should be in the receptor section
  • The schematic in the signalling pathway was very complicated. Can you add a paragraph underneath explaining the diagram?

  • Introduction:The information is well explained, and the paragraphs are short and straight to the point. A picture in this section would make the page more eye-catching. Lacks referencing.
  • Structure: Good choice of content included. Perhaps add in a diagram of an isomer for comparison. The picture needs a caption.
  • History: Well researched, however next to each discovery should be the name of the researcher and where possible their research article.
  • Insulin Receptor: Well explained section and a good choice of diagram to illustrate the information.
  • Pathway: The information is well written, however it could be better interpreted with a listed format. Great diagram to illustrate the written information.
  • Normal Function: This section is well written and clearly structured. It lacks references.
  • Abnormal Function: The information is very clear, however I feel that it could be better interpreted in a table format. Pictures could make this section more interesting as well.
  • Current Research: Very well written. It would be nice to have links to the research articles for further readings.
  • Overall impression: I enjoyed reading through your page. For the most part the information is clear, interesting and thoroughly researched. Pictures and coloured tables would make the page more appealing and eye catching.

I really enjoyed reading the "signalling pathway" section. It was clearly set out, with good use of subheadings. The way the text closely related to the image also helps new readers to follow along easily. I also thought the "abnormal function" section was well set out. A few images would make it more helpful for readers.

Some improvements that I think can be made include adding a page heading with the signalling pathway, before "introduction". I was reading "Introduction" and I wasn't sure what exactly your page was focusing on. I'm guessing it's insulin signalling, in which case I don't think the content on abnormal and normal function belongs in the intro; they should be brought up in separate sections later on (which you do have). Having said that, I think something like "structure" does belong here, if you're not sure of what additional content to add. Another point to note is that you should add a caption to the image and reference it; the same comment goes for all your other images.

The "history" section needs expanding - how does the discovery of things like GSK3 and PI3K relate to the advancement of our understading of insulin signalling? It's not detailed enough to be relevant.

The "insulin receptor" section is awfully empty. Furthermore, the way the content is written didn't really engage me - it sounds very monotonous. Additional things I would've expected to learn about in this section would've been along the lines of what gene(s) code for it, and since your image depicts it, what the role of the juxtamembrane motif, ATP binding site, regulatory loop, and C terminus do.

There was a prominent lack of referencing in "normal function". Did you refer to one source only for all that information, or did you just not bother to acknowledge the rightful authors?

Finally, I noticed you have three images on your page (there should be four members in your group), and two of them don’t provide citations and two of them again don't provide copyright information. Did you get them straight from wikipedia? Note that we're only allowed a maximum of one wikipedia image.

I hope these comments are helpful in pointing you toward what can be improved.

  • Pros
    • Content correctly cited and referenced
    • Good use of subheadings; makes information more easily readable
  • Cons
    • Needs a main heading for the actual page titled “Insulin Signalling”
    • No copyright information for images under “Structure of Insulin” or “Signalling Pathway” sections
    • “History” section is lacking citations
    • Page needs more breadth of research, especially the “Introduction” and “Normal Function” sections
    • No student-drawn image
    • Maybe add text to the external link to YouTube under “Insulin” section of the Introduction so readers know it’s a video (could be confused for just a citation)

  • I don't think intro should have so many subheadings when under each there isn't much info, or many subheading size it too large?! But content is good, easy to read, simple nice work.
  • Structure of insulin section- it has a nice big photo which is eye catching but i have a few issues with it- NO copyright or info in regards to where photo came from. Nothing to say what green and purple is representing, no text to accompany image so i really don't know or believe what I'm looking at. Is purple insulin or the green or both? Its confusing. The specifications are good but surely there is more to say about this molecule.
  • History is poor, for example "1988 Discovery of PI3K" i don't understand what this even means!, i don't see a reference for me to look into it. seems like this section was done in ten mins, i think if you spent more time you could have a great intro i think insulin is so well known that there would be multiple reviews about its history and it just takes some initiative.
  • Insulin receptor: is good, clear, succinct. But i really don't think the image needs to be so massive..
  • WOW signalling pathway section is really really good, i actually read the info, theres not too much that its a drag to read and there is an image that relates. its a perfect balance of information to image.
  • Normal function section is good, has potential to be better by adding some figures, images, graphs. EG, pancreas islet cell image from histology slides from HISTOLOGY, figures of levels of insulin after food before, such things found in many books...
  • Abnormal section has good info but nothing to make me what to read it, think of adding some diagrams or graphs or something to engage your audience

First of all, it might be a good idea to put your signalling pathway as the title for your group project - at the moment you simply start with the introduction and only by reading your information do I realise you are discussing insulin.

The introduction has quite a bit of information to it. I would advise to delete your subheadings in the introduction and put everything into one paragraph. You might want to be a bit more brief with the normal and dysfunction paragraphs and simply give the reader an idea of what will be discussed later on in your project.

The structure of insulin: the picture is a good attribute, however, make sure you put it as 'thumb' with a description and provide the source details and copyright statement. You could upload an image of the active monomer for comparison (if available). I do have the feeling you could mention a little more about insulin itself - maybe mention the gene, gene location etc. At the moment this section is mainly made up by the picture.

You provided a fair amount of history and I like the links you added in as well. If you want you could put it in a colourful table, however it looks organised and is easy to read the way it is now. With some of the discoveries you might want to mention the person/team who discovered it. As you do have a section on current research, you should provide us with some history from 1998-now.

The student picture in the insulin receptor section is very helpful. Please do put is as 'thumb' with a description on your main page. Also put your student number in the copyright statement. I am not sure whether or not inspiration for this image has been taken from another source, so please make that clear. When it comes to the text in this section on the insulin receptor, you might want to expand upon that. At the moment it is very basic and does not seem to be finished. For example, provide gene information on the insulin receptor, explain its dimerisation and what dimerisation is, give us more information on the different aspects of the beta-subunit, etc.

The signalling pathway is well-covered and the picture complements your text well. Again, I would advise you to change it to 'thumb', add a description and provide a copyright statement. I can also see by the number of references that more time and effort has been put into this section.

Normal function seems to have been created by using one source only.. I would use different sources to at least check the accuracy of the information used. Within this section you could give us some more information on the regulatory mechanisms and how this assists the normal function.

There is quite a lot of information in abnormal function as well, which demonstrates more effort has been put into this section. You could provide us with a table which briefly summarises the different abnormalities. Pictures could also make it look more attractive. Please do provide references on diabetes 1 and 2. Overall, this is a good section, but it could be more engaging for the reader.

I found it very interesting to read what is currently being researched. You could provide some direct links to the specific research institutes and their current projects.

You might want to add a few more terms to your glossary as you expand upon your text. The references seem to be fine. Overall, add a little more information to your project and make it more enjoying to look at by using tables/pictures/etc.


  • headings makes it clear, easy to read
  • overall well written project
  • pictures are relevant to the project
  • correctly referenced

Cons/ possible improvements

  • not enough pictures
  • pictures don’t have a legend attached to them
  • glossary should be more extensive
  • not sure if headings are required in the introduction
  • read through project to make sure there are no spelling, grammatical errors
  • more pictures to make it more interesting
  • remove ‘introduction’ subheadings in proceeding sections because its unnecessary

The project needs a title, even though it becomes obvious that the project is on Insulin Signalling, it helps to have it stated at the beginning. The ‘Introduction’, ‘Normal functioning’, the diabetes part of ‘Abnormal function’ and the Wilton Research Institute part of ‘Current Research’ needs more referencing, leaving it as it is might lead to plagiarism. In the ‘Glossary’, rather than just listing abbreviations, add a description to enhance the readers knowledge on the subject. It is more engaging when you understand what you are reading about. Good use of diagrams, they support the text and provide useful information.

  • The introduction section is missing a lot of citation, and not entirely sure if the different subheadings are needed in the introduction.
  • Citation needed for specifications of insulin. Image also missing copyright information
  • History is brief, perhaps more detail can be added, for example “discovery of….” By who? Etc. Also missing a large amount of citations in this section.
  • Good hand-drawn image in the Insulin receptor section, although maybe more information aside from the structures could be useful here
  • The signaling pathway section seems well done with good use of an image, with proper citation, although unsure if perhaps more citation within the paragraphs would be necessary, for example in the last sub-section CAP/Cbl pathway with 2 citations at the end, were the ideas contained therein from both articles and mixed?
  • Normal function section appears to be too brief and lacking in citations
  • Abnormal function section appears to be much more filled out than the normal function, and have a concise bit of information of a variety of defects; however citations would be nice for the Diabetes subsections.
  • Missing citations for 1st sub section of current research section, and perhaps misplaced citations for the Mediterranean research sub section, with the same citations within the paragraph and not at the end – also suggesting earlier on in the page that paragraphs with only citations at the end are not cited mid paragraph
  • Glossary should be expanded

  • Introduction was very informative but I’m not sure if all the information provided should be placed under the introduction heading. Especially the information provided about the signalling pathway as it is addressed later on. Also there is only one reference provided for this entire section.
  • The inclusion of the structure of insulin was a nice touch and it was very well described however there is no copyright information for the picture provided.
  • The history section provided a good coverage of the decades and I especially liked the use of external links in this section.
  • The insulin receptor image was very good as it was simple yet informative and drawn by a student? However, it isn’t very clear why you introduce both a beta and alpha subunit yet only continue on to describe the beta subunit. Perhaps you could add a sentence justifying the exclusion of the alpha subunit or the inclusion of more detail for the beta subunit.
  • Signalling pathway, abnormal and normal function sections are very good. I like that you broke them up into subheadings. In the Abnormal function section, it is clear that very extensive research was done, however the signalling pathway picture does not have copyright information provided.
  • The current research section was very well organised however, if they have websites, it might be nice to add external links to the Wilson Research Institute and the Mediterranean Research Centre. Also the glossary section needs expanding

Good work.

First of all, you should start your page with a headline about what your project is about. I do not really understand your concept giving each part a new introduction. I would like to get a better overview in the first introduction instead of everywhere a little bit. I think I would prefer some pictures and maybe a greater overview about the single parts. There are some spelling mistakes in your page too. It seems like you mention different things multiple times a little. You should try to avoid repetitions but bring your information into a flowing. In the part “Current Research” you mention Research Institutes but maybe you should specify where it is. Later on your page, you refer to an article about Diabetes, Insulin and Cancer- if you stress it like that, I would be interested to know the name and have the possibility to read through it.

  • Introduction: Although your introduction is well researched and summarised, I don’t think an introduction should include that much detail. Ideally your introduction should briefly provide an overview about insulin signalling and then have a paragraph briefly outlining what your page will cover. Alternatively you could revise some of the sentences and remove the sub headings – to present your introduction as paragraph format.
  • Structure: I think this section should come after the history. The image is very relevant however it does not contain the correct copyright information or a caption. In addition, the content in this section is also very sparse – perhaps you could have more details on the properties of insulin or present a simplified student drawn image of its structure with appropriate labels (this is imperative to orient the reader).
  • History: Great work on having clear and concise entries in the history however some entries need some explanation involving the research team and relevance to insulin signalling. The picture on the right is also very relevant and makes this section more interactive. My area of improvement is to perhaps add more entries after 1998 to expand the timeline.
  • Insulin receptor: This section contains an impressive student drawn image! I like the subheadings and short paragraphs however I think more information on the receptor itself and its structural components i.e. the labels on the diagram is required. In addition, I suggest formatting the image to remove large white spaces is also important along with a caption.
  • Signalling pathway: Very well researched content and the use of subheadings is effective however I think content which involves a sequential basis are best presented as a numbered list with a corresponding image. In addition, the content was at times very heavy on technical jargon and long compound names. This can be overwhelming for people who are not familiar with insulin signalling. Perhaps you could rectify this by simplifying some of the technical sentences. Well done though! – The amount of detail in this section is commendable.
  • Normal function: The existing content in this part is great however does not really focus on the functions of insulin in great detail. Perhaps the subheadings could be fleshed out more with further research.
  • Abnormal function: Fantastic and concise paragraphs! I liked this section very much but I think it can be perfected with some re-structuring, namely reorganising the information into a table with accompanying images.
  • Current research: I think it was interesting how you explained the current research ideas through the research institutes themselves. Having external links to the actual websites of these institutes is strongly recommended because it will engage the audience more.

As a group, you’ve demonstrate active albeit incomplete progress in all sections and that’s something very impressive and admirable! All you need to do is finetune and flesh out the content and structure to make your page more engaging and user friendly. Exceptional effort Group 6!

The introduction is nicely detailed, however, given that your topic is insulin, it should have a bigger heading. It also should include more references. I like the inclusion of an image for the structure of insulin, but it is not properly referenced and the there is no copyright information. The history is well-researched and detailed. It was a nice idea to include external links, and the image has the proper reference and copyright information. The sections on the insulin receptor and signaling pathway are nicely explained. Great student drawing, but again, the image in the signaling pathway section needs copyright information. The section on normal functioning needs to be elaborated and include more references and details. The section on abnormal function is well-researched, detailed, and clear. Overall, the current research is good, but perhaps include external links for the different research institutes. Also, the glossary could include a few more terms. Lastly, a couple of more pictures in the last few sections of the project would be great too, just to make it more visually pleasing.

Group 6

• Key points, titles, subheadings are all present, except future research

• More diagrams, tables and images. For example, maybe a slide of normal histology of islet of Langerhan compared to a slide of the histology present in Type 1 diabetes. This is a just a quick example and this sort of thing will aid you in satisfying the marking criteria

• If the diagram that represents the structure of insulin is your ‘hand drawn’ image, I politely suggest you do it again by hand or find another one to draw, because it a bit to basic for this level of assessement. I am sure Mark is not expecting a work of Picasso, but I think he’d rather something more substantial. If this image is not your ‘hand drawn’ image, I still suggest that you replace it, its too basic. Then the next image goes to the opposite extreme and is probably too detailed for this level. All that being said, more images etc will add to the aesthetics of your project and more importantly to the “teaching element” that is aimed at your peers

• Correct citations and referencing is present which demonstrate that the research is being done.Seems to have developed and edited the Wiki entries in accordance with the sites guidlines

Group 6 Project Feedback:

The Structure and content of the project seems to be of a good standard. All images used seem to coincide with the content given and the correlation between each section allows for greater understandability and cohesiveness. Despite the assignment meeting much of the criteria, there is room for improvement. Starting with the title of the project page to help understand what the project is all about. The introduction in my opinion lacks as it doesn't sum up the entire project and seems to disintegrate into subheadings which i found confusing. Also the image of 'structure of insulin' does not have its reference and copyright information and hence this needs to be looked upon. Overall, the project seems to meet much of the criteria however as I mentioned, improvement could be made.'


- tiltle should be more striking

- intro could benefit from being more a cohesive paragraph that introduces concepts and is still precise with subheadings and details left for the function section. also needs proper in text referencing

- history section is well-researched and interesting

- simple but effective use of images

-pathway section is excellent. well-researched, informative and concise with effective use of images

-normal function should maybe precede the pathway section. also needs work on referencing

- very interesting current research section but it would probably benefit from external links

Week 9 Discussion

Hey Guys, great work. Thanks for doing the work you were assigned to do. I noticed that we have not included all the pictures and information from our online google document, so if anyone can do that, it will be very nice as it does not seem I have access to it anymore. There is a problem with referencing at the end, it seems that the same reference is added over and over again, please advice me if any of you know how to fix that problem. And please include more photos please.

Could we from now please carry out our conversation here, and not in google documents cause i cant access it anymore thanks

Z3333427 12:31, 10 May 2012 (EST)

General Discussion

Hi guys, as we previously discussed, I think we should continue to discuss the different subtopics under each heading. That way it would be much easier to locate the work and organise the page. Although we have allocated research areas, I believe we should all contribute to assist each other if we came across each other's resources.

Z3333427 10:13, 13 April 2012 (EST)

Hey guys, i have been having problems with referncing this website, ever since we changed our referencing format, if anyone could explain how to format this website, it would be kindly appreciated.

Overall Structure


Structure of Insulin

<pubmed> 22363506 </pubmed>



Hey guys, this is a great article bout the history of Insulin, and includes a timeline. But i don't know if we can site it..


hey guys can we please expand on the history a little bit please...just say how it was discovered...brief paragraphs.

Insulin Receptor


<pubmed> 8019699 </pubmed>

Signaling Pathway

When Insulin binds to the receptor, the insulin receptor subtrate results in the tyroisine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor tryosine kinease substrate (IRS) by the insulin receptor substrates (IRS). As a result, the association between IRSs and the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinease (PI3K) is enabled. In turn, PI3K activates 3-phosphoinositide-dependant protein kinease 1 (PDK1), which in turn activates a serine kinease (Akt).

Furthermore, the Akt deactivates the glycogen synthase kinease 3 (GSK-3), and thus activates glyocen synthase (GYS), and in addition to that, glycogen synthesis. The Activation of Akt in turn leads to the translocation of GLUT 4 vesicles to the plasma membran from their intracellular pool, where they accelerates the uptake of glucose into the cell.

<pubmed>6381509</pubmed> This is an article from 1984 that describes activity of tyrosine kinase linked insulin receptor. It can help to outline the basic steps in insulin signalling.

Z3333427 10:41, 13 April 2012 (EST)

<pubmed> 11742412 </pubmed> good secondary journal article summarizing signalling.

Heyy i found an article [Insulin Signaling in the Central Nervous System A Critical Role in Metabolic Homeostasis and Disease From C. elegans to Humans] <pubmed>5855309</pubmed> --Z3291200 09:57, 3 May 2012 (EST)

Normal function

( i was just wondering, normal function, isnt that the same thing as signalling pathway, whereas abnormal signalling is where i mention what could go wrong with the signalling pathway???) - or do i talk about alternative pathways, if there are any??

Z3333427 10:43, 13 April 2012 (EST)

Ya that's true -- i think we should talk about abnormal pathways separately and alternative pathways separately. --Z3333794 12:41, 16 April 2012 (EST)

Abnormal Function

Abnormal function can lead to diseases such as Alzheimer's disease due to deficient brain insulin signalling pathway. it can also be the cause of silent coronary artery disease, as well as diabetes (type 1 and 2).

if anyone have any information that Discusses the abnormality in the signal pathway which leads to these diseases. - please post beneath. thank you

Z3333427 10:47, 13 April 2012 (EST)

Abnormalities of myocardial insulin signaling <pubmed>19897715</pubmed>

<pubmed>19797329</pubmed> (type 2 diabetes and left ventricular dysfunction

--Z3284634 10:58, 3 May 2012 (EST)

Current Research


Possible references for Group Project (Group 6: Insulin Signalling)

<pubmed>9566965</pubmed> The article uses pulse-chase labelling technique to follow the steps involved in the maturation process of the IR protein. This will make it more clear how the structure of the IR forms and binds to insulin.

<pubmed>1500426</pubmed> This article describes the structure and function of tyrosine residues on the insulin receptor.

<pubmed>8376461</pubmed> This article provides with information on different receptor domains required for different internalisation steps.

<pubmed>6381509</pubmed> This is an article from 1984 that describes activity of tyrosine kinase linked insulin receptor. It can help to outline the basic steps in insulin signalling.

--Z3333794 18:05, 28 March 2012 (EST)

Journal article for group 6

Lab question 2

1)<pubmed>7540611</pubmed> This article investigates the stimulation of 3T3-L adipocytes with insulin. It investigates the involvement of activation of tyrosine kinase for insulin signalling

2)<pubmed>10459021</pubmed> The primary article investigate the effect of nsulin-like growth factor (IGF) II and its over expression in human cancers.

3)<pubmed>7040416</pubmed> The study of this article provided evidence about the internalization of insulin in hepatocytes.


Z3333427 21:21, 28 March 2012 (EST)

Insulin Signaling

1). <pubmed>15576463</pubmed>

This article discusses the inhibition and activation of insulin signalling through activating / inhibiting rapamycin pathway and in turn, the activated, inhibited receptors.


The possibility of enhancing the activity of insulin through insulin degrading enzyme is discussed in the review article. This is to research further into the different pathway insulin signalling affects and how it is carried through.

3). <pubmed>22046260</pubmed>

Insulin Growth factor signalling through insulin isoforms that contribute to breast tumors/cancers - allows a deeper understanding into the results of altered insulin receptor expression.

4). <pubmed>22276152</pubmed>

Muscle reactions to insulin receptor signaling and the uptake of glucose during endotoxemia, stimulated by insulin. --Z3284634 15:44, 29 March 2012 (EST)

Insulin Signaling

1)<pubmed>21498522</pubmed> I'm not sure if we can use this review as a reference but it covers basic details about insulin; what it does, its receptors, how is regulated and it's signaling pathways. So I thought that it will be good for just background information.




5)<pubmed>21448434</pubmed> This is not really about Insulin signaling but Insulin degrading Enzyme. I thought that because this mentions 'Alzheimer's disease' we might talk about it in abnormal section?

--Z3291200 16:10, 29 March 2012 (EST)

Last week Fix ups

Introduction: Andrew

Structure of insulin: Jasneet

History: Alice

Insulin Receptor: Jasneet

Signalling picture: Jasneet

Normal Functioning: Andrew

Abnormal Functioning: Esther - Tabulate it, Name description how the pathway is affected and picture.

Current Research, Glossary and abbreviation: everyone as we go!

- make sure you take into account the feedback we were given. If you are unsure if the things suggested in the feedback will benefit the group, please consult with the group. Otherwise, please have all work allocated to you during our meeting before the end of the 20/05/2012, so we can assess the final page at our next meeting.

Z3333427 20:48, 17 May 2012 (EST)

- does anyone have a suggestion as to which image we could add to the introduction.

Z3333427 21:19, 17 May 2012 (EST)

All work needs to be finished by tomorrow as the assignment is due this Thursday, and we need to arrange for a time to meet up on Thursday morning to finalise the assignment outlay.

Please do not place the "structure of insulin" image as a thumbnail as it pushes all the other images far below their corresponding text thanks.

Doesnt glossary and Abbreviaton need to be referenced??

Catchy stuff - why insulin is relevant.

Types of cells in pancreas other cells.

how insulin is degraded - half life of insulin - carried by albumin.

measuring clinically

glucagon and balance with insulin

Introduce a couple egs.