Talk:2011 Group 4 Project

From CellBiology


This project has been a valuable learning experience for the group well done everybody !

Peer Assessment

Group 4

  • Introduction is well set out and informative, good how you start with the different classifications of cell junctions.
  • History section is very well detailed but is there anything from 2004-present?
  • Structure section is very detailed and lots of information, try breaking it up into dot points a bit.
  • Current research could be added to.
  • Glossary needs to be expanded to include all scientific terms in your page arranged alphabetically.
  • External links section to images and videos at the bottom of the page is a good idea but you only have two pictures here which could be integrated into your page. Maybe find a link to a video related to your junction and put it here with a blurb about the link.


  • Intro pretty short and specific and a little awkward; it doesn't ease the reader into the topic. Maybe start off with a broader discussion and then focus in on desmosomes.
  • "Introduction to the Structure of Desmosomes" is describing the function of desmosomes not the structure. I think entomology of the name would also be better suited to the function section.
  • The different cadherin isoforms part is not easy to follow, why do we need to know this?
  • Some awkward sentence structure in "Structure," makes it hard to follow sometimes
  • "The structure of the major plaque proteins" is hard to read. What does it mean? It seems like the info is also more effectively conveyed in the corresponding image.
  • "Investigations into function through knock out gene models" seems like it should be in the diseases section not function.
  • "Current Research" seems a little narrow in scope. More examples?
  • Overall, need to look at paragraph structuring and make sure that the information in the section matches the title.

Group 4" Desmosomes"

Magnificent effort with the project information and details. You manage to have all the essential subheadings. I do ,however, have some suggestions;

With regards, to the function, you could add some small subheading or bolded.

I loved all the microscopic images.

Make sure the “Changes in adhesive state influence function of epithelia” image is aligned properly.

Finally, spend some time adjusting the reference list.

Group 4

Overall, maybe add a few more pictures throughout to break up the text.

Intro: Introduction is a little short- try adding some information about what you will be talking about in more detail. A picture would also compliment this nicely.

History: Obviously well researched and referenced.

A few details in the structure need to be simplified.

Regulation is a good topic choice and nicely set out.

Current research could be extended. But good work overall!

Group 4- Desmosome

  • Ur history section was the best so far. Nice job guys .. very easy to understand
  • The content are very simplied – very easy to read
  • more pictures are needed in the page for grabbing attention
  • A glossary list would make it easier to understand
  • The references needs to be fixed up
  • further findings on current research

Overall – The content was very easy to digest and I personally liked the page :)

Group 4

I think the introduction should have a basic picture of a desmosome just so while reading the following sections we have a basic idea of structure. I also think it would be more appealing to the reader if the history section had 1 or 2 pictures of some of the findings that are stated in the history. The intro to the structure of desmosomes did a great job of clearly defining what the rest of the section would be talking about. I also thought that the use of a picture or diagram in each structure subsection was great for helping me visualize what it is I just read. The function section is a bit confusing. There are some run on sentences which make the content somewhat difficult to understand. For example: “Electron microscopy (EM) and specialised freeze fracture histological techniques viewing these electron dense structures make it possible to suggest the manner in which these extracellular core domain (ECD) transmembrane homophillic cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein cadherins, namely desmocollin and desmoglein, bind to each other, zipper like, in the midline between two cells.” I thought that the discussion of KO mice to investigate function was a really smart idea to discuss in this group project. The brief discussion of hemidesmosomes was a useful addition to this page. The picture in the calcium section lacks copyright and referencing. The picture in the desmoplakin section lacks referencing. The Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy section does not really say how desmosomes are affected in this disease. I am unsure if they mean that all cell adhesions are affected or if it is just desmosomes. The pictures “Presence of Desmoplakin in Cells”, “ECM of Desmosomes”, and “Desmoplakin” (pictures 1, 2, and 4 in the Images and Videos Section lack referencing information.


• Even though the intro is short, it still addresses the topic well.

• The page overall was in depth in respect to knowledge of the topic and a lot of research has obviously been done. However trying to learn from some of the sections with so much bulk can be difficult.

• The pictures tied in well to the areas but there size can be increased.

• Regulations can be decreases in size using a table.

• Any research being carried out in something on this topic other than diseases.

Group 4

  • Good concise introduction
  • Well detailed history, maybe something current should be included in this section.
  • Possibly some more information on the current research.
  • The subheadings under "structure" need some fixing as the whole structure under that section is a bit too long and complex, this makes it hard to follow the point you are trying to get across.
  • A glossary should be included, as this is an open access site and the content should be understood by all who would like to read it.
  • Do not forget to check spelling and punctuation, for example you have the word (cells’) written as so in the extra cellular domain subheading, 5th paragraph.
  • Overall it was very informative to read this assignment.

Group 4: Desmosomes

•Introduction needs to be expanded and pictures added otherwise readers are overwhelmed with text.

•Good history – anything beyond 2004?

•A glossary needs to be added – difficult words need to be explained

•Structure – the text order needs to be modified and fix subheading to make it more clear

•More current research is needed

•Perhaps adding a table to the page to break up the text is a good idea either for regulation or diseases

•Good mention of hemi-desmosomes and knockout genes –

•More research could be added as well a tables and more pictures to balance the page

•Remember to fix all spelling mistakes and referencing before due date

Group 4

  • You should put Desmosomes as your heading for clarity.
  • Introduction is a little short, maybe mention what you will be talking about in the project.
  • History is well researched
  • Some information in the structure is very detailed about could be simplified.
  • Function may be further simplified.
  • Good idea to put regulation and good balance between text and images.
  • Maybe a few more current research and a future research section?

Group 4 peer review

Introduction doesn’t really provide information about what junctions are and explain straight off to what desmosomes are. This could be difficult to understand for those who are not familiar with or do not know what junctions are to begin with. It is too short and there are no pictures as well. It should also give an overview on what would be discussed after the introduction throughout the page for clarification.

History could be a little bit more up to date. What’s happening after 2004 which is 7 years ago?

Structure and function is well researched and has a good balance between text and picture. Well done guys!

The hemidesmosomes section needs an image so that readers can have a visual representation of what it is.

I feel the disease and current research part is a little bit too short, are those the only diseases that occurred due to desmosomes? What about other diseases?

There should be a glossary since there are a lot of scientific terms such as haploinsufficiency, hyperkeratosison, etc that need to be explained briefly.

Nice work on the link to the video of pathophysiology of bullous diseases! It provides an additional information to those who want to know more!

Group 4

  • Introduction: Too short and it definitely needs at least a picture.
  • History: A few more images would be better.
  • Structure: Introduction to the structure of desmosomes, you do not need another intro when u already have one at the top. So, this one can be merged with the one at the top.Structures on 2 different levels; good organising.Outer dense plate; you might wanna consider making a brief intro to it , as it kind of so unfamiliar to regular readers.
  • Related diseases and research: They are alright.
  • Overall: the headings are confusing , in particular ,in structural part.

Group 4-Desmosome

  • Intro – needs more general description of desmosomes, its structure and function as well as a line or two on introducing the following content.
  • History – very extensive and no huge gaps in between.
  • Structure – The intro in this part could be simplified and maybe moved to the introduction section?
  • Function – addition of dot points might help to simplify the information and make it easy to read.
  • Related Diseases – one or two more diseases in this section would be good. Brief prevalence and treatment for each disease would be desirable.
  • Glossary – needs expansion by including words like haploinsufficiency etc.
  • Current research – more studies may be added.

Group 4

Very well done. This is very technical and is very well research. High level of detail requiring specific knowledge that is not covered on the page. This page needs a glossary to explain terms, although it is meant for peers the technical nature of the page requires some explanation of terms to make the page more accessible. Not sure if it's worth a mention, but the pubmed references could be done differently to give info about the resource on the page. The introduction is relevant but short, maybe including slightly more detail or theimportance of this junction would help. Besides these small details, I found this page incredibly informative with the amount of depth and detail, great work guys.

Group 4

Good work group 4. It is a very detailed yet concise page! However for the introduction and the function of this junction needs abit of fleshing out. The introduction seems abit to brief. Maybe the brief mention of what you will be talking about throughout the page or even just going into abit more detail to get the readers interested in this topic. For the function section, use of examples would be better to allow the readers to have a better grasp of what you are talking about. I like your groups use of pictures, they go really well with the text. Good work guys!

Peer review

  • Intro – Add ganglia to glossary? May be a labelled diagram showing the general anatomy of neuron, axon, ganglion, synaptic junction etc would be more illustrative and saves words.
  • History – has there been any discoveries after 1981?

What is a synaptic junction-Good use of diagrams and descriptions are clear and concise.

  • Types of synaptic junctions – Great summary at the end put into a table. How they function may be better illustrated by a video.
  • Synaptic Integration and Modulation – Brief description of what synaptic integration and modulation are at the beginning of the section may be helpful in providing the context to later contents. I assume that the content under subtitle “The action potential and summation” describes synaptic integration? “IPSPs or EPSPs” shouldn’t be abbreviated the first time they appear though I can see the full name in Glossary section.
  • Neurotransmitters – this section is greatly done! I like the combination of brief paragraphs, use of table and picture
  • Diseases Associated with Synaptic Junctions Dysfunctions – Medical jargons such as “substantia nigra”, ”lewy bodies” might be difficult for non-medical readers to understand. Add to the glossary in the end or links to external website may be helpful. Overall I think this section is too medical, it’ll be a great section for a med assignment but for cell biology I think there’s a bit too much information.
  • Current and Future Research and Developments – One or two more studies would be great; otherwise this section is well written and presented.


  • Intro: Too short and needs overview of what is occurring on the page. Maybe add an image as well.
  • History: More images maybe and put the image to the right side maybe, wrapped by text, Does that make sense? Well written.
  • Structure: Great that you got permission but it doesn't need to be included at the top on the page. Maybe make a reference to it when you discuss the paper.
  • Function: Heading a little confusing i would consider revising grammar for these ie: 'Desmodome as (a) cellular adhesion junction' - needs the a included at least. Also you launch straight into this section so maybe add a little preamble as to allow the reader to follow your thoughts rather than jumping from topic to topic. The images here need to have the website added into their image page and the last image falls bellow this section.
  • Hemidesmosomes: the link here needs to be formatted with the title of the page.
  • Regulation: Images should really move to be wrapped on a side so as not to impede flow and they need copyright info and a link to the location they came from.
  • Disease: Images here need captions and to be wrapped in the text rather than creating lots of extra white space.
  • Current Research: Too short and needs more articles and research being done.
  • Images and video: Add ALL the images from the page into here otherwise it is a bit of a waste of space. Also format the link properly!
  • No glossary???

Group 4

  • Obviously, introduction=not done.
  • At least a picture is needed to draw attention of the reader.
  • History good.
  • Structure needs to be fixed (add pictures, ordering the text, right subheadings).
  • Function is good.
  • “Knock out” is a good idea.
  • Regulation section maybe a table is needed.
  • Diseases are presented good (just fix the design).
  • Current research not finished.
  • References need to be fixed.
  • Overall, not enough text in many parts of this group project, not enough pictures, not tables etc, therefore this research is not completed yet.

-there is a few of grammar mistakes and typos,like under the intro part "neurones are a specialised cell", under the subheading of what is a synaptic junction , first line,"between to nerve cells".

-the terms or text in images are hardly seen as the text is either fainted or too tiny and the page isnt resourceful enough to me.

Group 4

  • Like the subdivisions in structure. There’s an excellent summary of function in this section “other roles including strengthening the internal structure of a cell, sensing environmental cues, regulating tissue homeostasis and assisting in tissue morphogenesis”, which I think would be better in the function section. It gives a better general outline of the roles than the info that is currently in functions. Some of the roles mentioned in the structure section aren’t even mentioned in the function section.
  • As with all of the groups there are a few typos and grammatical errors
  • Good use of relevant literature to explain desmosome regulation. Was also a good segue between function and disease
  • Surely there is more than one current study?

Hi guys, someone accidentally edited the template at the bottom of the project page instead of editing your project page so your group sub headings were on everyones project page instead of just yours. when you edit a page, make sure you are editing your group project page, it is really easy to edit another page without realising it. (ive done that before too). Ive fixed it for you :) Hope this makes sense :) -Jill (group 6)

Post Peer Assessment Discussion

Hey guys in response to the peers i moved around my pictures, gave them text under them, and added a lot of new information and some photos to the structure section. the only issue we have left is to clean up our reference list since it mostly looks like a bunch of pubmed IDs. i guess we will ask mark what to do with this.--Michael Orenstein 21:48, 25 May 2011 (EST)

Week 7

  • This is the week before the mid-session break.
  • In the lab this week we will have an opportunity to discuss any issues which are slowing progress on your project.
  • The Thursday of the week beginning 02 May will be when all projects will be open to Peer Assessment.
  • What you have on your page by Thursday of that week will be the content that others in the class will comment upon.

Week 6

  1. I see many groups now have subsection titles for their projects.
  2. Here are some searches: Pubmed search all databases junction | PLoS junction | JCB junction You can now simply put your own search term into each top window.
  3. Now's the time to get your images, movies, media etc uploaded. Biomed central | JCB | JCB Archive | PLoS. Once uploaded you can make a gallery on either your project or discussion page using <gallery>File:name here</gallery> tags with your image files listed between the tags. When you upload project images, add this text as it appears replacing # with your own Group number to the summary information [[Category:2011Project#]].
  4. Shown below are the criteria that will be used to assess your final project.

Group Assessment Criteria

  • The key points relating to the topic that your group was allocated are clearly described.
  • The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  • Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  • The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student’s own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  • Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  • Relates the topics and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  • Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer’s wiki.
  • Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  • The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  • Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with this sites wiki guidelines.

By Week 5

Each Group member has added to the discussion page:

  1. A Review Article
  2. A Historic Research Article
  3. A Current Research Article

No two students should add the same paper and there should be a link to the original article.


--Mark Hill 14:17, 20 April 2011 (EST) Looking at your discussion page there appears to be group members not actively contributing to the work. I remind all group members that your final mark will also be based upon your contribution to the project during its development phase.

ests edit

--Mark Hill 17:14, 30 March 2011 (EST) OK Group 4, Just one student (Z3288729) trying to organise an online discussion to date and no content added by any other group member to either your discussion or project page. Also no response to Z3288729 request about the project topic. You were meant to have already begun looking into both the topic and references, pasting links on your discussion page. I will see you in the lab tomorrow to discuss whether you are having problems or are simply not doing the work. This search should get you started. Search Pubmed: Desmosome


--Z3288729 13:25, 10 May 2011 (EST) Hey im just trying to fix up the glossary and all of the things i have in it are cadherins and its getting very repetitive. is it really necessary to have a glossary ??

--Z3288729 09:09, 29 April 2011 (EST) If this is the most effective way of doing it then it is fine. as long as at some point you show what its functions are as a whole. another way of organising it is, instead of dividing it into individual proteins and their functions, dividing it into functions and then relate it to each of the proteins? hope this helps.

Week 9

I went through and changed the references on our page like Mark suggested. from what I can see, the page is now working fine so feel free to upload your work now :) --Z3288729 07:41, 4 May 2011 (EST)

Week 7

Good work so far.

== WEEK 6-7: I have set up some subheadings on our project page. We will aim to get a move on and start some writing soon if it is possible. I think we may even have to meet up to discuss how our group work is going===--User:Z3288729 11:07, 10 April 2011 (EST)


It looks like everyone has found some articles, so would it now be possible to start the writing process this weekend? We dont need alot here but it would be good to start bringing our ideas together --User:Z3288729 10:47, 6 April 2011 (EST)

Firstly, is everybody happy with the topic that was decided upon last week? Next, we need to divide ourselves into sections of the topic. What if we divided it into:

Structure and function

Related abnormalities

Current research methods

Current and future possibilities for research

I personally would be most interested in researching the related abnormalities.\

(z3288729) S.J

(z3217345) M.B (Preference for structure and function)

(z3289066) E.K current research methods is good

I think that we need to go into a lot more detail with the layout and division of work between us. If anyone could help with this it would be much appreciated. We could possibly look into how they were first discovered also? I had a quick look at function, and there is HEAPS. This should become a separate subject area. With structure, we could look into location within the cell as well? Hemidesmosomes needs to be addressed, not in a huge amount of detail but it cannot be ignored. --Z3288729 11:01, 30 March 2011 (EST)

Since there won't be much information about current research methods, I'm happy to do hemidesmosomes as well.--Z3289066 11:04, 30 March 2011 (EST)

Great. I was thinking that we shouldn't have way too much on related abnormalities, so I can work on the structure as well?? And then leave function to Z3217345 --Z3288729 11:07, 30 March 2011 (EST)


I like the idea of all of us working on each section before moving on to the next one. --Sarah Jenkins 08:52, 31 March 2011 (EST)

Research Areas

Structure and function


Journal Articles

Desmosome structure:


Desmosomes: adhesive strength and signalling in health and disease:

General desmosome information:

Desmosome assembly and cell-cell adhesion are membrane raft-dependent processes:

Cellular and molecular biology of the desmosome: - Mechanical continuity is provided by desmosomes and adherens junctions

The desmosome in the epidermis and myocardium:

Desmosome structure, composition and function:

Biochemical Characterization of the Desmosome:

Regulation of desmosome assembly and adhesion:

Mechanisms of desmosome assembly and disassembly:

The desmosome: structure, function and acquired pathology:

Articles From Respected Cell Biology Journals

Intermediate filaments and the initiation of desmosome assembly (Journal Of Cell Biology):

Structure and assembly of desmosome junctions (Journal Of Cell Biology):

Cross-Talk between Adherens Junctions and Desmosomes Depends on Plakoglobin:


Breaking the connection: displacement of the desmosomal plaque protein desmoplakin from cell-cell interfaces disrupts anchorage of intermediate filament bundles and alters intercellular junction assembly:



  1. Emmanuella Delva, Dana K Tucker, Andrew P Kowalczyk The desmosome. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol: 2009, 1(2);a002543 PubMed 20066089

Related abnormalities


Current research methods




My name is Sayanthan (Sai) or z3252635 and I'm really sorry I haven't actually said or put up anything on this page. I've read through everything and I'm sort of lost so I was wondering if we could go through the plan in class tommorrow. I've also done a bit of reading up on our topic just background information and sorts so I know what we are talking about. Here are the links i used


Search for MBoC Desmosomes

Article on Desmosomes In Vivo This may be helpful

Wiki Link


--Sayanthan Kumaran 23:38, 30 March 2011 (EST)

Working progress



Cell Adhesion: The Molecular Basis of Tissue Architecture and Morphogenesis [1]</pubmed>



Early research on the structure of desmosomes K HAMA The fine structure of the desmosomes in frog mesothelium. J Biophys Biochem Cytol: 1960, 7;575-8 PubMed 14399189

--Sarah Jenkins 10:53, 31 March 2011 (EST)

R L WOOD Intercellular attachment in the epithelium of Hydra as revealed by electron microscopy. J Biophys Biochem Cytol: 1959, 6;343-52 PubMed 13845833

--Elisabeth Karsten 17:36, 4 April 2011 (EST)




===Knockout mice model disease studies===.

(historical article)

Werner W Franke Discovering the molecular components of intercellular junctions--a historical view. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol: 2009, 1(3);a003061 PubMed 20066111

David Garrod Desmosomes in vivo. Dermatol Res Pract: 2010, 2010;212439 PubMed 20671997

Masayuki Amagai Autoimmune and infectious skin diseases that target desmogleins. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci.: 2010, 86(5);524-37 PubMed 20467217

(Current research article)

Gerda van der Wier, Hendri H Pas, Marcel F Jonkman Experimental human cell and tissue models of pemphigus. Dermatol Res Pract: 2010, 2010;143871 PubMed 20585596

J R McMillan, H Shimizu Desmosomes: structure and function in normal and diseased epidermis. J. Dermatol.: 2001, 28(6);291-8 PubMed 11476106

J A McGrath Hereditary diseases of desmosomes. J. Dermatol. Sci.: 1999, 20(2);85-91 PubMed 10379701

(Review article)

Helen A Thomason, Anthea Scothern, Selina McHarg, David R Garrod Desmosomes: adhesive strength and signalling in health and disease. Biochem. J.: 2010, 429(3);419-33 PubMed 20626351



K J Green, J C Jones Desmosomes and hemidesmosomes: structure and function of molecular components. FASEB J.: 1996, 10(8);871-81 PubMed 8666164

--Elisabeth Karsten 17:41, 4 April 2011 (EST)

Sandy H M Litjens, José M de Pereda, Arnoud Sonnenberg Current insights into the formation and breakdown of hemidesmosomes. Trends Cell Biol.: 2006, 16(7);376-83 PubMed 16757171

--Elisabeth Karsten 18:09, 4 April 2011 (EST)

M G Nievers, R Q Schaapveld, A Sonnenberg Biology and function of hemidesmosomes. Matrix Biol.: 1999, 18(1);5-17 PubMed 10367727

--Elisabeth Karsten 18:09, 4 April 2011 (EST)

Necessity for functional desmosomes


Desmosomes are important in hyperadhesion, with their structure supporting function, assembly, and regulation. Desmosomes are important in tissue remodelling and are associated with autoimmune and genetic diseases Helen A Thomason, Anthea Scothern, Selina McHarg, David R Garrod Desmosomes: adhesive strength and signalling in health and disease. Biochem. J.: 2010, 429(3);419-33 PubMed 20626351

--Sarah Jenkins 10:48, 31 March 2011 (EST)

David R Garrod, Mohamed Y Berika, William F Bardsley, David Holmes, Lydia Tabernero Hyper-adhesion in desmosomes: its regulation in wound healing and possible relationship to cadherin crystal structure. J. Cell. Sci.: 2005, 118(Pt 24);5743-54 PubMed 16303847

--Elisabeth Karsten 18:11, 4 April 2011 (EST)



M Pasdar, W J Nelson Regulation of desmosome assembly in epithelial cells: kinetics of synthesis, transport, and stabilization of desmoglein I, a major protein of the membrane core domain. J. Cell Biol.: 1989, 109(1);163-77 PubMed 2501314

--Elisabeth Karsten 16:38, 4 April 2011 (EST)

David R Garrod, Anita J Merritt, Zhuxiang Nie Desmosomal adhesion: structural basis, molecular mechanism and regulation (Review). Mol. Membr. Biol.: 2002, 19(2);81-94 PubMed 12126234

--Elisabeth Karsten 16:43, 4 April 2011 (EST)



It is uncertain whether the disorder where desmosomes lose functionality and lead to loss of adhesion between cells, which in turn leaves a blistering effect on the skin, is a genetic, immunological or infectious problem Thierry Olivry, Keith E Linder Dermatoses affecting desmosomes in animals: a mechanistic review of acantholytic blistering skin diseases. Vet. Dermatol.: 2009, 20(5-6);313-26 PubMed 20178467

--Sarah Jenkins 10:50, 31 March 2011 (EST)

Abnormalities in the skin and heart have been associated with a lack of plakoglobins and non-functional desmosomes Manuela Pigors, Dimitra Kiritsi, Sebastian Krümpelmann, Nicola Wagner, Yinghong He, Maurizio Podda, Jürgen Kohlhase, Ingrid Hausser, Leena Bruckner-Tuderman, Cristina Has Lack of plakoglobin leads to lethal congenital epidermolysis bullosa: a novel clinico-genetic entity. Hum. Mol. Genet.: 2011, 20(9);1811-9 PubMed 21320868

--Sarah Jenkins 09:03, 1 April 2011 (EST)

Dysfunctional desmosomes means that electrical signalling between cardiac myocytes is impaired or lost. This results in arryhtmias, particularly in the right ventricle A Azaouagh, S Churzidse, T Konorza, R Erbel Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: a review and update. Clin Res Cardiol: 2011, 100(5);383-94 PubMed 21360243

--Sarah Jenkins 09:05, 1 April 2011 (EST)

Palmoplantar skin is a specialised tissue, whose function is affected by mutant or dysfunctional desmosomes Peter H Itin, Susanna K Fistarol Palmoplantar keratodermas. Clin. Dermatol.: 2005, 23(1);15-22 PubMed 15708285

--Sarah Jenkins 14:07, 2 April 2011 (EST)

Research Methods and future research





  1. <pubmed>8608588