Talk:2010 Lecture 7

From CellBiology


nuclear copies of mitochondrial DNA (numts)

"The natural transfer of DNA from mitochondria to the nucleus generates nuclear copies of mitochondrial DNA (numts) and is an ongoing evolutionary process, as genome sequences attest. In humans, five different numts cause genetic disease and a dozen human loci are polymorphic for the presence of numts, underscoring the rapid rate at which mitochondrial sequences reach the nucleus over evolutionary time. In the laboratory and in nature, numts enter the nuclear DNA via non-homolgous end joining (NHEJ) at double-strand breaks (DSBs). The frequency of numt insertions among 85 sequenced eukaryotic genomes reveal that numt content is strongly correlated with genome size, suggesting that the numt insertion rate might be limited by DSB frequency. Polymorphic numts in humans link maternally inherited mitochondrial genotypes to nuclear DNA haplotypes during the past, offering new opportunities to associate nuclear markers with mitochondrial markers back in time."
"Numts are common in humans. As a result, numt variation is continuously mis-reported as mitochondrial mutations in patients"

JCB Movies

  • Mitochondrial replication factories DNA replication factories in mitochondria divide even in the absence of mitochondrial DNA, according to Meeusen and Nunnari.
  • Chloroplast FtsZ forms a ring at the division site Bacterial FtsZ mediates cell division by forming a ring at the cell division site. Vitha et al. show that chloroplast FtsZ also forms a ring and thus probably acts in a similar manner.
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