Sorted JCB Archive

From CellBiology

External links to historic papers from JCB. See also the unsorted From the JCB Archive list.

Membranes

Nucleus


Ribosomes / endoplasmic reticulum

  • Ribosomes, or the particles of Palade George Palade identifies particulate components of the cytoplasm, known initially as the particles of Palade and later as ribosomes.
  • Microsomes are the in vitro ER George Palade and Philip Siekevitz unite the fields of microscopy and fractionation in this work. They conclude that Albert Claude’s biochemical fraction called microsomes are the in vitro version of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) — a cytological feature first noted by Keith Porter.
  • Growth cones make proteins, too The recent discovery that elongating axons can synthesize proteins locally is pre-dated by 30 years by Virginia Tennyson’s discovery that growth cones have ribosomes.
  • Lost in translation: the signal hypothesis Günter Blobel and Bernhard Dobberstein use a Rube Goldberg concoction of mouse RNA, rabbit ribosomes, and dog ER to reconstruct cell biology's version of the ship in the bottle: how proteins a cell intends to secrete end up in the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Isolating SRP Walter, Blobel, Warren and Dobberstein pin down the proteins (and RNA) that grab onto signal sequences.

Vesicles

  • The discovery of synaptic vesicles The visualization of the messengers of the synapse — synaptic vesicles — gives the hypothesis of quantal transmitter release a structural correlate.


Golgi complex


Exocytosis

  • A pathway for secretion Radioactive proteins are followed after their synthesis as they progress towards their secretory fate; this allows the definition of not only trafficking pathways but of the organelles that lie along that pathway.


Lysosmes

  • Catching sight of lysosomes Lysosomes are identified by Christian deDuve when a membrane barrier gradually dissolves, thus yielding the tell-tale release of an enzyme activity over time.
  • The first supper Fritz Miller and George Palade carry out one of the first examples of combined cytochemistry and electron microscopy. They find that enzymes and substrates colocalize in lysosomes.
  • Excess secretory products fuse with lysosomes Robert Smith and Marilyn Farquhar find that excess secretory granules are not stored but fuse with multivesicular bodies (MVBs) that then mature and fuse with lysosomes.
  • How to make a lysosome Daniel Friend and Marilyn Farquhar find that transport pathways intersect: synthesized enzyme meets endocytosed protein in the lysosome.

Mitochondria

Endocytosis

  • Coated pits bring in the yolk A study of yolk protein uptake leads Thomas Roth and Keith Porter to propose that endocytosis is specific to a particular cargo and that the vesicle coat might be functioning in both selection and mechanical molding.
  • Curbside recycling at the synapse When John Heuser and Thomas Reese visualize neurotransmitter 'quanta' being released, they also catch sight of endocytic recycling that forms new synaptic vesicles. Ralph Steinman confirms that significant plasma membrane recycling must also be occurring in other cell types.
  • Viruses catch an endocytic ride into the cell Ari Helenius puts together snapshots of virus entry to form a coherent sequence of events.


Peroxisomes

Microtubules

Microfilaments

  • What the cytoskeleton really looks like Freeze drying gives John Heuser a far more complete view of the cytoskeleton.
  • Not actin, not myosin, but intermediate They are neither thick nor thin: Howard Holtzer identifies intermediate filaments as a completely new kind of filament.
  • Actin in non-muscle cells Howard Holtzer’s group uses heavy meromyosin as a probe to find actin filaments in non-muscle cells.
  • Actin and microtubules interact via MAP A viscometer allows Linda Griffith and Tom Pollard to demonstrate that actin and microtubules interact via MAPs.
  • Actin in locomotion Ken Yamada, Brian Spooner and Norman Wessels use the newly discovered drug cytochalasin B to show that actin filaments drive cell locomotion.
  • Actin pushes in bizarre places Lewis Tilney discovers that actin polymerization is a means of force generation. His studies use unorthodox systems: the acrosomal reaction in both starfish and sea cucumber sperm and the cell-to-cell motility of the Listeria monocytogenes bacterium.
  • Skeleton crew Anne Ridley and Alan Hall find that rho and its relatives control actin dynamics.
  • Powered by gel Thomas Stossel and John Hartwig nab the very first actin-binding protein, find that it spurs actin fibers in vitro to coalesce into a mesh, and tie this process to what happens in vivo during phagocytosis.
  • Myosin powers cytokinesis Issei Mabuchi and Makoto Okuno, in the first use of antibodies as protein inhibitors in live cells, show that myosin interacts with actin to provide the force behind cell cleavage.

Adhesion / Cell Junctions


Cell Death

  • Autophagy unveiled Autophagy is identified, given a function, and named.
  • Hold on for dear life Steve Frisch and Hunter Francis find that epithelial cells that lose touch with the extracellular matrix kill themselves by anoikis.
  • Dying On Cue Yuri Lazebnik and William Earnshaw create a system for in vitro apoptosis.
  • Active neuronal death Eugene Johnson shows that neurons lacking trophic factors actively kill themselves.

Cell Division

Signaling

  • EGF is internalized and degraded Occupied growth factor receptors do not remain statically at the cell surface, say Graham Carpenter and Stanley Cohen, but are internalized to allow continued signaling or downregulation.
  • Roll-your-own endothelial tubes Tom Maciag and Michael Stemerman find the critical factor that keeps endothelial cells alive and controls their tube formation.
  • Contacting the matrix Can the extracellular matrix (ECM) act as an inducer? Using an ingenious combination of biochemistry and tissue culture on Nucleopore filters, Elizabeth Hay and Stephen Meier show that direct contact with ECM is necessary for corneal epithelium to differentiate.
  • In vitro nuclear import In vitro nuclear import assays lead Gerace and Blobel to the importance of the Ran GTPase.
  • Pursuing the middleman: the hunt for integrins A group of labs use antibodies to find integrins and define their function.
  • BFA sends proteins back Jon Yewdell uses Brefeldin A to detect retrograde trafficking.



Techniques


Cells

  • Endothelial tight junctions form the blood–brain barrier What is the cellular correlate of the so called blood-brain barrier? Thomas Reese and Morris Karnovsky find that it is the junctions between endothelial cells in the brain vasculature. Their discovery comes thanks to three factors: high resolution electron microscopy; the development of sensitive tracer methods; and a fortuitous lunch date.
  • A cell line that is under control George Todaro and Howard Green establish the 3T3 cell line — the first well behaved, contact-inhibited cell line.
  • A macrophage mystery leads to dendritic discovery In the days before MHC function is defined, digestion of antigens in macrophages is mistakenly taken as evidence against the cells’ role in antigen presentation. But the study leads Ralph Steinman and Zanvil Cohn to their vital discovery of dendritic cells.
  • How to spot a satellite cell Based on appearance alone, Alexander Mauro identifies satellite cells as a possible muscle stem cell.


Extracellular Matrix

  • ECM determines fate Streuli and Bissell find that extracellular matrix can tell a cell what to do and what to become.
  • Basal lamina instructs innervation Joshua Sanes and Jack McMahan show that regenerating nerve axons take their cues for new synapse formation from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of muscle cells and not from the muscle cells themselves.
  • ECM signals ECM degradation Damsky and Zena Werb show that changes in ECM interaction change expression of ECM-modifying enzymes.
  • More than one way to attach Wen-Tien Chen and S. Jonathan Singer define different connections between membrane receptors and extracellular matrix.
  • Making tendons David Birk and Robert Trelstad discover how the cell manipulates collagen to form a tendon.
  • Contacting the matrix Can the extracellular matrix (ECM) act as an inducer? Using an ingenious combination of biochemistry and tissue culture on Nucleopore filters, Elizabeth Hay and Stephen Meier show that direct contact with ECM is necessary for corneal epithelium to differentiate.


Yet to be sorted

  • Passenger proteins check in Carol Cooke and William Earnshaw identify the first passenger proteins and catalog their strange movements.