MedEd L&T Forum December 2009
Phoebe Norville and Mark Hill, School of Medical Sciences
- There is currently a lack of cardiac embryology in the Undergraduate Medicine Programme. This reflects a similar paucity in both textbook and online cardiac embryology resources directed at medical students.
- In order to understand the common clinical presentations of patients with congenital heart defects it is necessary to understand basic cardiac development.
- The Cardiac Embryology wiki resource aims to make information on cardiac embryology available to medical students.
- Consistent with new embryology site
- Familiar to medical students
Animations and images
- Example: Intermediate Looping Animation
Preliminary evaluation of the Cardiac Embryology module with science students outlined the following issues:
- Problems with animation formatting and technology
- Quantity and format of text
- Problems with jargon and explanation of terms
(--Mark Hill 03:47, 25 November 2009 (UTC) Content shown below is not part of the L&T MedEd presentation)
The online module will be divided into basic, intermediate and advanced sections with the images depicted here indicating which section the learner is in.
The content to be included in the module can be summarised by the following table:
Primary Results Analysis
Data was colleted from 19 students however one student left partway through the class so did not complete Quiz 2 or the Evaluation Questionnaire. Therefore their results were omitted from this analysis leaving 18 subjects.
There were 12 questions in the quiz. The mean for Quiz 1 was 3.22 while the mean for Quiz 2 was 5.06 thus having a mean improvement of 1.833. A paired-samples t-test showed this was a statistically significant improvement in students’ results (p = 0.018; Upper CI = -1.105, Lower CI = -2.562).
Some questions showed more improvement than others:
|1||Location of the cardiogenic fields|
|2||The first day the heart tube begins to beat|
|3||Predominant type of mesoderm forming the heart tube|
|4||Parts of the heart tube and their corresponding locations during cardiac looping|
|5||Cardiac looping timeline|
|6||Corresponding septa and foramen in the atria and ventricles|
|7||Adult and embryological correlations of parts of the atria and sinus venosus|
|8||Fusion of the conotruncal ridges: timeline and direction|
|10||CHD proportion of all embryological abnormalities|
|11||CHD epidemiology: VSD|
|12||Foetal circulation & septa of the atria and ventricles|
It seems from here that looping and septation are the areas in the module that need the most work. This was again noted in the comments gathered (see below) which identified looping as the most difficult concept to grasp.
Evaluation Questionnaire Results
NB Methods: A scale of strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree was used with strongly agree results recorded as a ‘5’ and strongly disagree as ‘1’.
There was no statistically significant correlation between the students’ overall enjoyment (recorded with the Questionnaire) and the level of their improvement in the quizzes (p = 0.698).
The following statements from the questionnaire are ranked below from the highest level of agreement to the lowest. The highest average was 4.5 and the lowest was 3.61, indicating that the students were on average of some agreement with all the statements.
|1||The module was easy to navigate|
|2||The module was easy to use|
|3||The module increased my understanding of CE|
|4||The formatting made things easy to read|
|5||I enjoyed using the Cardiac Embryology (CE) module|
|6||The animations increased my understanding of CE|
|7||The images were enjoyable to look at|
|8||The module was an appropriate length|
|9||The images increased my understanding of CE|
|10||The language was familiar and simple to understand|
|11||The animations were enjoyable to watch|
|12||There was an appropriate amount of text on the pages|
|13||The final quiz was suitable for the module content|
|14||I found it easy to concentrate on the information|
Qualitative data in the form of comments was collected. The main data extracted from the comments is summarised below:
The best aspects of the module:
- Division of the content in terms of separate pages for different concepts and navigation between these
- Separation of Basic, Intermediate and Advanced and navigation between these
- Varied use of images and animations
- When there was smaller paragraphs of text on the page
The worst aspects of the module:
- Animation speeds and labels
- Too much text in some places
- Excessive jargon/lack of explanation of terms
Improvements to be made:
- Animation speeds/labels/fading
- Break up large paragraphs of text
- Glossary and links to other explanations of concepts
- More information/images relating to the clinical environment associated with abnormalities
- Audio with animations to explain them better
The order of statements ranked above correlates with the best and worst aspects of the module identified in the comments. Hence the list of improvements extracted from the comments creates a fairly comprehensive list of areas I will begin to work on now.
There is some online information directed at teaching medical students cardiovascular embryology. See: Online Resources for Medical Students
Project Code: F3E-CB4 Project Title: Cardiac Embryology
Aims of the project
Develop an online module on cardiac development as part of the UNSW Embryology educational resource.
The current undergraduate medicine course lacks content coverage on cardiac development, which is key to future understanding of newborn, infant and later postnatal abnormalities of cardiac development. The project would allow a student to develop using the existing online material and newly developed content a module for students to access and work through key features of both normal and abnormal cardiac development.
1. Normal cardiac development will be described.
2. The typical abnormalities of cardiac development will be described.
3. The current clinical treatments for abnormal cardiac development will be identified and illustrated.
1. Understanding of existing literature on cardiac development and clinical practice. 2. Understanding the basis of presenting medical information and education. 3. Develop an understanding and interaction with both clinical experts and patients affected by cardiac developmental abnormalities.
1. Hill MA. UNSW Embryology version 7.5 2008 (online) 2. Hill MA. Early human development. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Mar;50(1):2-9. 3. Mohun T, Sparrow D. Early steps in vertebrate cardiogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997 Oct;7(5):628-33. Review. 4. Tanner K, Sabrine N, Wren C. Cardiovascular malformations among preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2005 Dec;116(6):e833-8.