File:Leukocyte phagocytosis of yeast.jpg
Neutrophils (PMNs) plated onto a layer of yeast particles.
A. In this scanning electron micrograph (SEM), one can see the early stages of phagocytosis of a yeast particle (Y) by a leukocyte. Note the extensive lamellipodia (L) reaching out to adhere to the yeast particle.
B. In this oriented thin section, the cell has contacted the serum-coated carbon surface (CS), over which it is spreading, as well as a floating yeast particle (Y), in the early stages of being phagocytosed. Storage granules (ag and sg) and islands of partially extracted glycogen (gl) are visible in the cytoplasm. A denser, homogeneous zone of cytoplasm (double-headed arrows) prevents these organelles from closely approaching the membrane at sites of cell-carbon and cell-yeast contact. The cytoplasm of both the lamellipodia touching the yeast and carbon surface (L) and of those reaching out from the region above the contact sites (L') is continuous with the subplasmalemmal band of organelle exclusion. Title Phagocytosis Series (Historic) 3. Phagocytosis of Yeast Particles by Phagocytic Leukocytes. Author(s) Dorothy F Bainton, Janet Boyles
Historical Significance The process of phagocytosis or 'cellular eating' was discovered by Metchnikoff in 1882. He believed it to be a defense mechanism against invading microorganisms. Paul Ehrlich named the two professional leukocytes of blood the polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leuckocyte (PMN) and the monocyte that differentiates into the macrophage, or mononuclear phagocytic system of tissues. The intracellular events that occur during phagocytosis have been established by numerous investigators. Zanvil Cohn and James Hirsch (1960) and Hirsch (1962) provided phase contrast motion pictures of rabbit leukocytes ingesting yeast particles. Dorothea Zucker-Franklin and Hirsch (1964) extended these studies to the electron microscope level and illustrated the degranulation of rabbit peritoneal leukocytes during phagocytosis.
Materials & Methods PMNs, obtained from rabbit peritoneal exudate, were plated onto coverslips with opsonized yeast held in place by polylysine.
A. For this scanning electron micrograph the specimen was fixed for 1 hour at 37C in a 1:1 mixture of SBS and 4% glutaraldehyde in 20 mM Na2PO4-NaHPO4 buffer, osmicated for 1 hour in 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.1 M Na4PO4- NaHPO4 buffer containing 4% sucrose, treated with uranyl acetate, dehydrated, critical-point-dried and coated with 5 to 7 nm platinum-carbon.
B. For this transmission electron micrograph, the specimen was fixed for 30 minutes at 37C in 1.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer containing 1% sucrose, kept overnight at 4C, osmicated for 1 hour in 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.1 M Na4PO4-NaHPO4 buffer containing 4% sucrose, stained in bloc with uranyl acetate, dehydrated and embedded in Spurr's resin. References Hirsch JG, Cohn ZA. Degranulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes following phagocytosis of microorganisms. J Exp Med [serial online]. 1960;112:1005-1014. Available at: http://www.jem.org/cgi/reprint/112/6/1005 Hirsch JG. Cinemicrophotographic observations on granule lysis in polymorphonuclear leucocytes during phagocytosis. J Exp Med [serial online]. 1962;116:827-834. Available at: http://www.jem.org/cgi/reprint/116/6/827 Zucker-Franklin D, Hirsch JG. Electron microscope studies on the degranulation of rabbit peritoneal leukocytes during phagocytosis. J Exp Med [serial online]. 1964;120:569-576. Available at: http://www.jem.org/cgi/reprint/120/4/569 Boyles J, Bainton DF. Changes in plasma-membrane-associated filaments during endocytosis and exocytosis in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Cell [serial online]. 1981;24:905-914. Available at: http://download.cell.com/pdfs/0092-8674/PII0092867481901161.pdf
View the images separately at: Bainton DF, Boyles J. Phagocytosis of yeast particles by phagocytic leukocytes. A. scanning electron micrograph. ASCB Image & Video ASCB Image & Video Library. February 2007:CYT-1. Available at: Bainton DF, Boyles J. Phagocytosis of yeast particles by phagocytic leukocytes. B. transmission electron micrograph. February 2007:CYT-2. Available at: Citation Bainton DF, Boyles J. Phagocytosis of yeast particles by phagocytic leukocytes. ASCB Image & Video Library. February 2007:CYT-11. Available at: http://cellimages.ascb.org
Publication Date Published in February 2007. Resource Type Still image Digital Format jp2; Digitization process: full prints scanned as 1200 dpi tiffs; individual images cropped and reduced to 600 dpi tiffs; merged into single image in Photoshop. Original Date Original image created in 1981. Original Format Original resources: black and white prints.
License Details Terms for non-commercial use: http://cellimages.ascb.org/cdm4/terms.php Publisher The American Society for Cell Biology
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