File:Cell division phases.jpg
The image outlines the stages of cell division and the cytoskeletal components involved in each step.
Figure 1 Mitosis and cytokinesis. a, Prophase. Duplicated centrosomes migrate around the nucleus. (Centrosomes, consisting of a pair of previously replicated centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material, nucleate MT assembly and organize spindle poles.) b, Prometaphase. The nuclear envelope breaks down allowing MTs to move chromosomes to the equator (e) in a process termed congression. c, Metaphase. Sister chromatids (double arrowheads) face opposite poles (p). MTs are oriented with their plus ends distal to the poles, and are organized into four sets, namely: astral MTs, which link spindle poles to the cell cortex; chromosomal MTs, which link chromosome arms to poles; kinetochore MTs (kMTs), which link poles to kinetochores; and interpolar MTs (ipMTs), which link the two poles. d, Anaphase A. Chromatids are moved to opposite poles (segregation). e, Anaphase B. Pole–pole spacing increases. During late anaphase the division plane is determined by a mechanism involving spindle–cortex interactions and the cleavage furrow containing a contractile ring assembles from actomyosin-II and begins to contract. f, Telophase/cell–cell scission. Nuclear envelopes reassemble around decondensing segregated sisters. The contractile ring contracts (furrow ingression) developing a barrier between the daughter cells and constricting the spindle mid-zone (the array of ipMTs lying between separated chromatids) into a structure called the midbody (the remnant of the mid-zone). During abscission, the furrow ‘seals’ by a mechanism thought to involve vesicle transport/exocytosis, completely separating the daughter cells.
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|current||10:06, 16 May 2013||600 × 581 (107 KB)||Z3240911||The image outlines the stages of cell division and the cytoskeletal components involved in each step. Figure 1 Mitosis and cytokinesis. a, Prophase. Duplicated centrosomes migrate around the nucleus. (Centrosomes, consisting of a pair of previously re...|
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