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UNSW Cell Biology

ANAT3231 Lecture 05

Introduction

This lecture continues the introduction to cell, by looking at the cell "cytoskeleton" structure and function overview. The cytoskeleton consists of 3 different/separate filament systems: microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. Each system has a specific role in regulating cell shape, motility and strength.

This introduction is followed by a more detailed coverage of the intermediate filament system. The lecture slides and textbook alone contain enough information as an introduction to the subject for this level of study. If you are interested in further reading, I have also included below links to more detailed textbooks with further information and images. Please note this additional information is not necessarily examinable, but may be useful if you have not previously studied biology. The link below to lecture slides allows you to open and view the slides in your web browser or download the PDF document for later viewing/printing.

Objectives

Brief understanding of cytoskeleton structure and function

Understand role of intermediate filaments

Understand structure and distribution of intermediate filaments

Brief understanding of classification of intermediate filaments

Brief understanding of nuclear cytoskeleton structure/function/distribution

Brief understanding of some IF related diseases

Page Links: iLecture Audio | Lecture Slides | Lecture Slides Text | NLM Online Textbooks | Search PubMed | Web Links | Movies | Cytoplasmic IF | Nuclear IF |OMIM Database | Related Topics

iLecture Audio

Link to audio presentation of this lecture using iLecture system. Having troubles accessing iLecture Content? iLecture Student Help

2005 Lecture 05 Cytoskeleton 1
2005 Lecture Series

Lecture Slides

Link to lecture slides allows you to open and view the slides in your web browser or download the PDF document for later viewing/printing.

lecture05 1 slide/page (view only) (53 pages, 1 Mb)

lecture05 6 slides/page (print) (9 pages, 516 Kb)

lecture05 outline (print no images) (6 pages, 92 Kb)

See also Lecture Slides Text on this current page

Laboratory 5

The associated Laboratory 05 looks at Introduction to Immune Techniques.

NLM Online Textbooks

Molecular Biology of the Cell | Molecular Cell Biology | The Cell- A Molecular Approach

Search NLM Online Textbooks- "cytoskeleton" : Molecular Biology of the Cell (95 text, 17 figures) | Molecular Cell Biology (67 text, 8 figures) | The Cell- A molecular Approach (42 text, 5 figures)

Search NLM Online Textbooks- "intermediate filament" : Molecular Biology of the Cell (27 text, 7 figures) | Molecular Cell Biology (27 text, 7 figures) | The Cell- A molecular Approach (11 text, 4 figures)

PubMed

Articles

Intermediate Filaments in Motion: Observations of Intermediate Filaments in Cells Using Green Fluorescent Protein-Vimentin Martys JL, Ho CL, Liem RK, Gundersen GG. Mol Biol Cell. 1999 May;10(5):1289-95.

An excellent article with linked supplementary Movies showing location of the Vimentin-GFP in living cells.

Review Articles

External link to NLM PubMed Database, listed references are cross section of all recent reviews, use the Search option to see all Reviews

Intermediate filaments are dynamic and motile elements of cellular architecture BT. Helfand, L. Chang, and RD. Goldman, J. Cell Sci. 2004 117: 133-141.

Proteins that bind A-type lamins: integrating isolated clues MS. Zastrow, S. Vlcek and KL. Wilson, Journal of Cell Science 117, 979-987 (2004)

Search NLM PubMed Database

Articles "cytoskeleton" : PubMed Apr 2005 (Apr 2005: 59104 articles, 7201 reviews)

Movies

Intermediate Filaments in Motion: Observations of Intermediate Filaments in Cells Using Green Fluorescent Protein-Vimentin Martys JL, Ho CL, Liem RK, Gundersen GG. Mol Biol Cell. 1999 May;10(5):1289-95.

Comment: An excellent article with linked supplementary Movies showing location of the Vimentin-GFP in living cells.

Detection of cytokeratin dynamics by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in living cells. Windoffer, R., and Leube, R.E. J Cell Sci. 1999 112:4521-4534.

Comment: An excellent collection of movies from Prof. Dr. Rudolf Leube (Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology) showing the dynamics of the cytokeratin network during cell division and also following various drug treatments.

Lamins visualised by GFP Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics of the Medical Faculty, Maastricht University, The Netherlands

Comment: Time-lapse studies of mitotic and apoptotic cells showing redistribution of lamins A, B and C into the lamina.

Rapid movement of axonal neurofilaments interrupted by prolonged pauses L Wang, C-l Ho, D Sun, R K H Liem & A Brown, Nature Cell Biology 2, pp 137 - 141 (2000)

Comment: Requires subscription access to Jourmnal to see these neurofilament movies.

Web Links

National Institue of General Medical Studies (USA) has an online book "The Fundamental Unit of Life" which has brief overviews of cell cytoskeleton.

The Cytoskeleton, the Cell's Physical Props

Cytoskeleton (commercial site) About Intermediate Filaments

Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filaments

These IFs are divided into 5 subclasses based on their biochemical properties, immunologic specificity and tissue distribution: keratin (139350, 148030) filaments in epithelial cells, vimentin (193060) filaments in cells of mesenchymal origin, desmin (125660) in muscle cells, glial filaments in astrocytes, and neurofilaments in neurons (modified text from OMIM).

Keratin Acidic, Basic

Large family of IF proteins expressed mainly in cells of epithelial tissue.

Keratins can be divided into 2 subfamilies: Acidic (Type I) and Basic (Type II). There are 137 OMIM entries for Keratin.

OMIM- Keratin 15

Vimentin

Expressed mainly in cells of mesenchymal tissue.

OMIM- Vimentin

Neurofilament

Expressed mainly in neurons, 3 main proteins based on molecular weights: Light (68 kD), Medium (125 kD), Heavy (200 kD).

OMIM- Neurofilament Light

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein

Expressed mainly in cells of astroglial lineage, therefore associated with glia of the central and peripheral nervous system.

OMIM- GFAP

Desmin

A muscle-specific cytoskeletal protein found in smooth, cardiac, and heart muscles. (Type III)

OMIM- Desmin

Nestin

Expressed mainly in stem cells of the central nervous system in the neural tube. Upon terminal neural differentiation, nestin is downregulated and replaced by neurofilaments.

OMIM- Nestin

Nuclear Intermediate Filaments

Lamins A, B, C

IF proteins of the nuclear lamina (network under the inner nuclear membrane) and therefore expressed in all eukaryotic cells. There are 3 mammalian lamins, A, B, and C. (Type V)

OMIM- Lamin A

Proteins that bind A-type lamins: integrating isolated clues MS. Zastrow, S. Vlcek and KL. Wilson, Journal of Cell Science 117, 979-987 (2004)

Comment: A review of A-type lamins and their protein interactions as well as coverage of lamin diseases "Laminopathies".

Related Topics

intermediate filaments, neurofilament, lamins, keratin

Lecture Slide Text

Note that the text without the slide context and associated images may not make sense and is insufficient to understand all key issues.